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New Testament Survey: Acts-Revelation - Lesson 29

Revelation (part 1)

The purpose of Revelation is to encourage suffering saints. (44:47)

Thomas Schreiner
New Testament Survey: Acts-Revelation
Lesson 29
Watching Now
Revelation (part 1)

Flow assignment 2 Peter 1:3-11

I. Author and location

II. Date

IV. Situation

V. Genre

VI. Destination: 7 churches of Asia Minor (1:4; 2:1-3:22)

VII. Theories of interpretation

VIII. Interpretive standpoint

 

Revelation Outline

I. Introduction 1:1-20

II. Letters to the Seven Churches 2:1-3:22


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  • Acts is a continuation of the gospel of Luke, which is a historical account of the life and ministry of Jesus. Acts begins with the 40 days that Jesus was on earth after his resurrection, and continues with his ascension and the work of the Holy Spirit in the early church.

  • This lecture was not recorded. We hope to include it the next time Dr. Schreiner teaches the class.

    Acts Chapter 1 is an account of Pentecost and the first times the apostles proclaim gospel publicly.

  • The kerygma is the proclamation of the gospel to nonbelievers. The first presentations were made to people who were familiar with the teachings of the Old Testament. (Begins on page 6 of the outline)

  • The kerygma is the proclamation of the gospel to nonbelievers. The first presentations were made to people who were familiar with the teachings of the Old Testament. Steven’s speech and Paul’s conversion are significant events.  (Begins on page 6 of the outline under Acts: Outline Summary, point I, F.) (43:40)

  • Description of the expansion of the gospel to the gentiles.

  • Beginning in 2 Thessalonians chapter 2, Paul calls us to watch for the second coming of Jesus by being aware that there will be a great falling away from the faith in the body of Christ and the Lawless One will appear. When God calls us, his calling creates life. (43:16)

  • God chose not the wise, powerful or noble, but the foolish, weak and despised so that we would know that our relationship with God is based on what Christ did, not what we do. Paul boasts in the power of God, not the wisdom or eloquence of his arguments. The only way we know about God is when the Spirit reveals him to us.

  • The core problem of the Corinthians is pride. God turns everything for our benefit, even things that cause pain or death. The fight of faith is to believe this, even when circumstances are difficult. Only God can judge a person’s relationship to God. (43:36)

  • It’s better to be cheated than to take a fellow believer to court. If you are a fully devoted follower of Christ, your behavior will show it. (44:35)

  • Paul believes in cultural flexibility and contextualization. Paul uses the example of a race as a picture of be motivated to live well. He is saved and needs to live in a way to be saved. Whether or not to eat meat offered to idols is still a significant issue in some cultures. (41:23)

     

  • Audio content is missing at this time for 1 Corinthians chapters 12-16, 2 Corinthians and Romans chapter 1.

    However, a transcription and outline for this material is provided.  

  • The first of a three-part overview of Paul's epistle to the Romans.

  • Romans 4 tells us what kind of faith Abraham had that was saving faith. You are not saved by working for God, but by believing in God. Hope is confident, sure expectation. Paul’s main rhetorical question is, “Can the law transform us?” His implied answer is "no!" (43:03)

  • The law doesn’t give life because commands don’t transform us. Romans 8 says we need the Spirit to transform us. The witness of the Spirit that we are his children is a mystical sense and evidence of our obedience. Paul says all the promises for relationship to God are for the gentiles as well as the Jews. God is in charge of everything. (44:25)

  • Christ is the very image of the invisible God. He partakes of his essence. Jesus is preeminent, because he’s God and he’s the reconciler of all things. Jesus is Lord of Creation and Lord of the Church. Paul calls the Philippians to unity. (46:43)

  • Summary of main themes in Ephesians. The first three chapters communicate who and what we are in Christ. Chapters 4-6 is the practical outworking. Paul equates maturity with doctrinal purity and stability, not being swayed by every idea. The Christian life isn’t mathematical because it’s a relationship with the Spirit. (43:54)

  • Your view of authorship of biblical documents and how you translate those documents depends quite a bit on your presuppositions. Some people think that because of the vocabulary and the way some subjects are addressed in the Pastoral epistles that Paul did not write them. However, others are convinced that Paul wrote them and offer responses to objections that others have raised. (42:24) This lecture was given by a teaching assistant of Dr. Schreiner's because he had planned to be out of town.

  • God wants to work in our hearts so we are full of love for him and others. Paul gives his testimony as an example that anyone can be saved. God desires to save all, and he elects some. Elders are described as people of character who lead and teach. In Titus, the ethical exhortations are anchored in the gospel. In 2 Timothy, Paul calls on Timothy to suffer for the gospel.

  • We should think of Hebrews as a sermon. The warning passages are exhortations following theological teaching. It was probably not written by Paul. The book was written to Hebrew Christians to warn them against committing apostasy.

  • Christ is more important than Moses. Warning passages encourage us not to drift away or harden our hearts. Since Jesus was fully human, he experienced the full range of temptation, but never gave in. (43:55)

  • The main points in the book of Hebrews beginning with chapter 6. Jesus was a priest in the order of Melchizedek because he was superior to the Levites. Christ’s sacrifice is better than the animal sacrifices because it is once for all. The sacrifices are good because they are a shadow and an image of what is coming, but the sacrifices are temporary and imperfect. (43:55)

  • The author of Hebrews concludes by exhorting people to put into practice the theological truths he has just explained.

  • Defining questions about the content and origin of the epistle of James. (43:01)

  • Summary of the teaching of James on justification and wisdom. (41:58)

  • Peter’s call to look forward to our future inheritance and live as God’s people. (42:35)

  • Flow assignment 1 Peter 2:18-25

    Peter calls followers of Jesus to persevere by responding to suffering in a godly way. (44:48)

  • Concluding verses in 1 Peter and the epistle of 1 John. The purpose of John’s epistles is to give people assurance of their faith.

  • God has given us everything we need for life and godliness.

  • The purpose of Revelation is to encourage suffering saints. (44:47)

  • This lecture was cut short because of technical difficulties during the recording. The audio covers point III. Visions of God, points A and B, beginning with Revelation chapter 4. The next lecture begins at point IV. The Seven Seals, point D.

  • Main ideas in Revelation chapters 6-13.

  • Summary of the last days of judgment and then the creation of the new heavens and new earth. The time for this lecture was shortened to give students time to complete an in-class evaluation. (30:15)

A study of the Acts to Revelation in the framework of the history of the early church. We are missing a few lectures that we hope to record the next time Dr. Schreiner teaches the class. These include lecture numbers 2 and 11, the lecture covering Acts chapters 16-22 and 1 Thessalonians, and the lecture covering Revelation chapter 6.

You may download Dr. Schreiner's complete course outline By clicking on the Resource link and then the Class Outline link. An outline for each lecture displays when you click on the Outline tab on each lecture page.

Dr. Schreiner has developed a system for exegesis. The "Flow and Tracing" handout gives you some information about how he does it. Some lectures include audio of Dr. Schreiner applying this method to specific passages. Dr. Schreiner recommends that you read the chapter in his book, "Interpreting the Pauline Epistles" along with this handout before you try this process.

Course: New Testament Survey, Acts to Revelation

Lecture 29: Revelation Part 1

This is the 29th lecture in the online series of lectures on New Testament Survey by Dr Thomas Schreiner. Recommended Reading includes: Article on Divorce and Remarriage – Craig Blomberg, Trinity Journal, 1990; The Apostolic Preaching of the Cross by Leon Morris; Are there Two Will in God by John Piper; Two views on Women in Ministry by James Beck and Craig Blomberg; Word Bible Commentary: Pastoral Epistles, Volume 46, by William D. Mounce and Recovering Biblical Manhood and Biblical Womanhood, by Wayne Gudem and John Piper (article by Vern Poythress entitled, ‘The Church as a Family’)

(Any slides, photos, notes or outlines that the lecturer refers to should be down loaded separately. If they are not available, you may be able to find something similar using the Google© search engine.)

The Purpose of Revelation is to encourage suffering saints.

Flow Assignment 2nd Peter 1:3-11

‘His divine power has granted to us all things that pertain to life and godliness, through the knowledge of him who called us to his own glory and excellence, by which he has granted to us his precious and very great promises, so that through them you may become partakers of the divine nature, having escaped from the corruption that is in the world because of sinful desire. For this very reason, make every effort to supplement your faith with virtue, and virtue with knowledge, and knowledge with self-control, and self-control with steadfastness, and steadfastness with godliness, and godliness with brotherly affection, and brotherly affection with love. For if these qualities are yours and are increasing, they keep you from being ineffective or unfruitful in the knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ. For whoever lacks these qualities is so nearsighted that he is blind, having forgotten that he was cleansed from his former sins. Therefore, brothers, be all the more diligent to confirm your calling and election, for if you practice these qualities you will never fall. For in this way there will be richly provided for you an entrance into the eternal kingdom of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ.’

I. Author and Location

John is the author and the style is very close to that of the Gospel of John and the Epistles of John. However some do argue that this isn’t John the apostle, but their arguments are not very convincing. The Book can be attributed to the apocalyptic genre. It is written from Patmos, an island opposite of Miletus off the coast of Asia Minor. We don’t know for sure why John was there, but he says because of the Word of God, however most have argued it was because of some kind of persecution.

II. Date

There have been intense debates on the date whether it be the early 90s or late 60s. The traditional view is the early 90s and I sort of hold to that but it is possible that it was written in the late 60s. This is known as the Preterist view which actually depends on it being written in the 60s, before the destruction of the temple. Some people are really strong about it being written in the 60s, a viewpoint coming from conservative Christian groups.

III. Situation

The situation is obviously persecution. The martyrs under the altar are mentioned in 6:9. John refers to the trial on the earth in 3:10. We are told a number of times that Babylon poured out the blood of people several times. There is also a reference to the martyrs being beheaded. This is a quick survey telling us that people are being put to death for being Christians, but this doesn’t seem to be an empire wide sustained persecution. Instead it seems to be a sporadic persecution that is breaking out in different places. There is no evidence that there was a sustained persecution of Christians in the 1st century. It wasn’t quiet that organized. It happened from time to time and from place to place.

IV. Genre

The genre of the book is three fold. It is prophesy, an epistle and apocalyptic. This is somewhat of a simple definition. But apocalyptic literature is simply revelation, but it can also be described as a supernatural unveiling of what is about to take place. It is a divine disclosure usually via angels or a prominent person, in this case, John, in which God promises to intervene in human history to destroy evil and to bring in his kingdom. A more official definition as stated by an apocalyptic committee where every word was weighed states that an apocalyptic is a genre of revelatory literature with a narrative framework in which a revelation is mediated by an-other worldly being to a human recipient disclosing a transcendent reality which is both temporal in so far that it envisages eschatological revelation. So there is a temporal timeline; a story that goes through history. It also involves another supernatural world, the world above. It was intended to interpret present earthly circumstances, usually difficult ones in light of the supernatural world of the future and to influence both the understanding and the behavior of the audience by means of divine authority. Some characteristics of apocalyptic include a historical dualism, not anthological where God and Satan are equally powerful but it is a historical dualism where there is battle between God and Satan. There are visions and pseudonymity and revelation. There is the use of symbolism, numerology which is very important in the Book of Revelation. There is also angelology and also demonology. Note that apocalyptic literature wasn’t unfamiliar with people as indicated by other apocalyptic works. The distance between us and the time of the Bible is clear when we open the Book of Revelation. For modern people it is strange to them but it wasn’t so strange for the readers of the 1st and early centuries.

V. Destination: 7 Churches of Asia Minor (1:4; 2:1-3:22)

It was written to the seven churches of Asia Minor. So it wasn’t written to us but to them. So one of my key points in the Book of Revelation; yes, they could understand the book. This is a big difference from today and many popular prophetic usages being proclaimed today. We cannot understand Revelation today like those people of the 1st century AD. You cannot compare what is called ‘newspaper eschatology’ to that of the understanding of the early readers. Interestingly the meaning of Revelation changes as world current events changes; it keeps shifting throughout history along with people who have been identified as the anti-Christ throughout history, so many, yet not one have been true. However, it is obvious that Revelation will be fulfilled and will have some relationship to history.

VI. Theories of Interpretation

There is the Preterist theory, another word for the past, the past being the key to interpreting Revelation. There is an evangelical wing and also a liberal wing. The Pretorius simply states that it was written to the early church and it was all fulfilled in the 1st century. It states that the beast and Babylon are both Rome with the first readers understanding this. In regards to the liberal wing, John was wrong; he thought the end was coming. He said that Jesus was coming soon; he was talking about Rome. There is no doubt about it; the original readers understood it, but he was wrong because Jesus didn’t come back. The evangelistic view agrees in many respects to this; the beast is Rome and Babylon is the city of Rome, but John is not wrong. They believe that much of Revelation was fulfilled in AD 70. I therefore think that they rightly place Revelation into its historical context. But I think they too simply limit Revelation to AD 70 and start forcing their interpretation to be understood in light of the writings of Josephus and the Jewish war of AD 70. The second view which is known as the idealist view agrees with the Preterist view in that we ought to interpret it in light of history but only as a general picture of what will happen ultimately. The objection to this view is that it isn’t specific enough. But I’m really an idealist when it comes to Revelation. I see it as more general than specific. Dennis Johnson who teaches at West Minister Seminary in Escondido California in his book, Triumph and the Lamp portrayed Revelation in this way, an idealist view.

The third view is the historical view. This view tries to interpret the seven letters in light of church history. Starting out with the Ephesus church that lost its first love. Some believe that is what happened to the early church; they lost their first love. The Smyrna church was the church of the martyrs. For today, I would classify us as being lukewarm. According to this view these letters were written chronologically as periods of church history, but hardly anyone holds this view now. It is a rather weak view; the churches are actually removed from their historical context and read as prophecies in church history. With this view, we are almost forced to consider today’s church as the lukewarm group. Not too many people hold this view anymore. The futurist view is the fourth view and it is the view that you are most familiar with. This understands Revelation as being almost completely in the future. It will be fulfilled at the end and everybody is trying to figure out what all of these symbols are about. There are many books written on this and even some movies. There is the left behind series, Hal Linsey, etc. plus an unending stream of books which aren’t necessarily bad; most are encouraging us to keep up the fight until the end. We need to keep in mind that Jesus is coming again. I think there are a lot of flaws and misinterpretations in these books, but the Lord still uses them. And, I believe this view is partially correct as there are parts of Revelation that will be fulfilled in the future. It is just that the detailed fulfillment that is overly stressed that I don’t think is correct; it’s also the speculative nature of some of these books.

VII. Interpretive Standpoint

So to sum this up; I think we need to interpret the Book of Revelation historically in light of understanding the Old Testament. But this presents a problem because most people don’t know the Old Testament. If we have the Old Testament background and we interpret Revelation in context, I think we could make good sense of it. Okay, there are passages in Revelation that I simply don’t know what they mean and I may find out that I am wrong on quite a few things. So to repeat, the main purpose of Revelation is to encourage suffering saints. but for the western church, we almost think of Revelation as we think about UFO’s. It’s fascinating but separate from our everyday lives and so it is sort of like a puzzle that needs to be figured out. But we separate ourselves from it. However, the early Christians were suffering intensely and for them Revelation was a sort of pastoral.

Revelation Outline

I. Introduction 1:1-20

So we see Jesus Christ as being the object of Revelation. This book reveals to us Jesus Christ and it is a revelation given by Jesus Christ also; both are true. Luther complained about Revelation saying that it should reveal something. I think Luther was wrong when he said this because it did reveal to us, Jesus Christ. It actually fit Luther’s theology as his theology of being Christo Centric. Revelation is certainly Christo Centric as it focuses on who Jesus Christ is. ‘The revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave him to show to his servants the things that must soon take place.’ I believe the word ‘soon’ here includes all of history. John received visions in verse 2. Then we have a blessing for those who read aloud the words of this prophecy since most people didn’t have books or scrolls. And it is not just hearing being the blessing but keeping and obeying it. This is the pastoral sense coming in right from the beginning. In verse 4, John writes to the seven churches in Asia and then we have grace to you and peace from him who is and who was and who is to come from the seven spirits and from Jesus Christ. I suggest that this is a reference to the trinity. Grace and peace only come from God; so you have grace and peace from the Father, the Spirit and the Son. The Father is the one who is, who was and who is to come; a reference that goes back to Exodus. Revelation has something like 400 allusions to the Old Testament. They are in almost every verse. From the seven spirits who are before his throne where seven is a symbolic standing for the perfection of who the Spirit is. He is the faithful witness and the firstborn of the dead. Jesus is sovereign over death. Even if Rome is making your life miserable, he is still in control over the kings of the earth. John is trying to strengthen those who are suffering by saying that Jesus knows what is happening to you. You can trust him for he is ruling and reigning. He says to him who loves us, who freed us from our sins by his blood. We have the center of our faith; we have been redeemed by the blood of Christ.

(It would be very interesting to do a sermon on the Cross from Revelation in apocalyptic language. The Cross winds its way through Revelation again and again.) Revelation is about the Cross and crucifixion of Jesus Christ. We are now part of God’s kingdom; we are his kings and his priests. We see in verse 7 that Jesus is coming with the clouds where everyone will see him, even those who pierced him, and all the countries of the earth will bow on account of him. Here, we have a reference to both Daniel and Zechariah. Coming with the clouds is from Daniel and even those who pierced him are from Zechariah. Will the people of earth morn in repentance or from the judgement that is coming? Verse 8, I am the Alpha and the Omega, says God. I am who is and was and is to come; I am in control, God is saying and the suffering church needs to understand this. Verse 10 says that John was in the Spirit on the Lord’s Day; in other words the Spirit came upon him for the reason of prophecy. He is commanded to write down what he sees and send it to the seven churches of Ephesus, Smyma, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia and to Laodicea. In verse 12, ‘I turned to see the voice that was speaking to me’ is apocalyptic language. I saw seven golden lampstands and in the midst of them one like a son of man, clothed with a long robe and with a golden sash around his chest. This all comes from Daniel 7; the son of man is Jesus. The robe that he is wearing is a priestly robe to portray his priestly image. His hair was white as snow. In Daniel 7, you have the son of man who comes up to the Ancient of Days. But in Daniel 7, it is God who has the white hair. John takes the Old Testament and tweaks it somewhat. John is saying here that the Son of Man is also God. His eyes were like a flame of fire penetrating everything. His feet were like bronze, refined in a furnace. They are feet that can crush you if you oppose him. This is just imagery; he doesn’t really have bronze feet. The part that says his voice was like the roar of waters also comes from the Old Testament. In his right hand he held seven stars, from his mouth came a sharp two-edged sword, and his face was like the sun shining in full strength. Now, nobody puts a sharp two-edged sword in their mouths. This stands for the Word of God; the strength of his Word. His face was like the sun shining in full strength. The glory on his face was so remarkable.

When John saw him, John fell at his feet as though dead. He fainted! But he laid his right hand upon me telling me not to fear. And then the message for the suffering church, ‘I am the first and the last, and the living one. I died and behold I am alive forevermore, and I have the keys of Death and Hades.’ Since I’m living, you will live; isn’t that what he is saying? This is a great message for the church and us. Those seven stars are the angels and the lampstands are the seven churches. I don’t know what the angels of the seven churches are; some think they were pastors but usually angels in Revelation are angels.

II. Letters to the Seven Churches 2:1-3:22

There is a pattern here. The letters are addressed to the angel of each church. John encourages most of the churches. He complains about some of them, in fact, most of them. There are a couple of churches that he doesn’t complain about. He calls them to repentance and threatens them with judgement. There is a promise to over-comers and a call to hear. There is no complaint in regards to Smyrna and Philadelphia. The first epistle is to the church at Ephesus and is covered in verses 1-7. ‘The words of him who holds the seven stars in his right hand, who walks among the seven golden lampstands.’ This is part of the vision of Christ. The point here is that he walks in the midst of the church; he knows what is going on. He encourages them by telling them that he knows their works, their toils and endurance and how they cannot bear with those who are evil. You have tested those who call themselves apostles and found them to be false. Verse 6 says that they hate the works of the Nicolaitans. This church is concerned with orthodoxy and they do good works, testing things doctrinally. He commends them for all of this. Remember that the complaint is that they have lost their first love. They don’t have that same passionate love they once had. He calls them to repent and threatens them with judgement and calls on them to overcome. Verse 7b, ‘to the one who overcomes, I will grant him to eat of the tree of life, which is in the paradise of God.’ Here John is using language from Genesis saying that you must overcome to experience eternal life, to be saved on the last day. This is a salvation where God does a new work in his people.

In the next vision, we have Smyrna in verses 8-11. He says here, ‘the words of the first and the last, he who died and came to life.’ John says, I know your tribulation and your poverty and the slander of those who say that they are Jews, are not, but instead they are a synagogue of Satan.’ So who are the true Jews? We are the true Jews; those who belong to the people of God. Remember, this is said to a persecuted church by a person is a Jew himself. This is not anti-Semitic. He says that ‘the devil is about to throw some of you into prison, that you may be tested, and for ten days you will have tribulation.’ So they were to be tested for ten days and they will get out of prison. Is this just literal here? I think he means a period of time but short compared to eternity. Then he says to be faithful unto death. They might kill you but I will give you the crown of life. There is no complaint against this church. He further says, ‘he who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says; the one who conquers will not be hurt by the second death.’ The second death is the lake of fire. So you must stand for Jesus or he will deny you on the last day. But he says to this church that they will live with him forever. To move down to verse 17, the white stone and the hidden manna are symbols of eternal life. Through all these letters, those who overcome will receive eternal life. There is no complaint about the church in Philadelphia either.

Now I just want to say something about the church in Laodicea in 3:14-22. This is the last church. Note that from 1:18 – 3:22, God is speaking. In verse 3:14, ‘The words of the Amen, the faithful and true witness, the beginning of God’s creation.’ I think he means the author of God’s creation, the sovereign over creation. He says, ‘I know your works, you are neither cold nor hot. Would that you were either cold or hot!’ Your works are lukewarm, neither hot nor cold. They are horrible. I think he fits this to the cultural situation in Laodicea for they had piped hot water into the city but by the time it reached the city, it was lukewarm. I wish you were good but you aren’t. He is not saying that they will receive a lessor reward but instead he is saying that they will go to hell. This is what I think. You need me for you are so self-complacent. Listen to me. When he says in verse 20, ‘behold, I stand at the door and knock,’ this is related to people who profess to be Christians. This is the context. You need to repent. Of course this can be related to non-believers. He is saying to repent and believe. We will continue in the Revelation Part 2.