Understanding the Old Testament - Lesson 7


Exodus, the second book of the law, unfolds as a natural continuation of Genesis, exploring Moses' birth, his 80-year journey, and the Israelites' liberation from Egyptian bondage. It is full of divine encounters, from the burning bush to the covenant at Mount Sinai, setting the stage for Yahweh's presence to dwell among his people in the Tabernacle. Three pivotal sections highlight Yahweh's sovereignty: enthroned over the Red Sea as Israel's warrior king, over Mount Sinai as covenant king, and in the Tabernacle as their God. Moses' call reveals the essence of the divine name Yahweh—"I will be with you." Exodus foreshadows Jesus as the true and better Moses, Tabernacle, and embodiment of the divine name, setting the stage for fulfillment in the gospel narrative.

Miles Van Pelt
Understanding the Old Testament
Lesson 7
Watching Now

I. Introduction to Exodus

A. Position in the Pentateuch

B. Hebrew Name and Translation

C. Connection to Genesis

II. Purpose and Themes

A. Purpose of Exodus

B. Theme of Divine Presence

C. Genre and Content Overview

III. Outline of Exodus

A. Three Major Sections

1. Yahweh enthroned over the Red Sea

2. Yahweh enthroned over Mount Sinai

3. Yahweh enthroned in the Tabernacle

IV. Major Events in Exodus

A. Call of Moses and Revelation of the Divine Name

1. Divine Presence in the Burning Bush

2. Meaning of the Divine Name Yahweh

B. The Tragedy of the Golden Calf and the Glory of Yahweh

1. Sin of the Golden Calf

2. Proclamation of Yahweh's Name

C. Yahweh Filling the Tabernacle

1. The Cloud Covering the Tabernacle

2. Symbolism of the Tabernacle

V. Exodus as Gospel Promise

A. Jesus as the True and Better Moses

B. Jesus as the True and Better Tabernacle

C. Jesus as the Ultimate Expression of the Divine Name

VI. Conclusion

A. Understanding Exodus as Types and Shadows

B. Pointing to the Ultimate Realities in Christ

  • Engage with the Old Testament to grasp its Gospel-centered nature. From Genesis to Ecclesiastes and Psalms, discover foundational truths, wisdom, and insights on suffering. Strengthen your faith and find enduring hope in God's Word.
  • Gain insight into the Old Testament's theological core, centering on Jesus Christ. Explore its diverse genres, languages, and authors, unified by Jesus as its focal point. Understand how biblical evidence supports Jesus as the fulfillment of Old Testament prophecy, shaping interpretation.
  • In this lesson, Dr. Miles Van Pelt provides the thematic framework for the Old Testament. The Old Testament's thematic core is the Kingdom of God. Through this lesson, you'll understand its covenantal nature, from pre-temporal arrangements to various administrations like redemption, works, and grace, unveiling God's salvation plan in Christ.
  • Discover the intricate covenantal structure of the Bible, revealing its theological depth and unity, from the division of the Hebrew Bible to its mirroring in the New Testament, all centered around Jesus Christ.
  • Gain insight into the Pentateuch's covenantal structure, Moses' authorship debate, and evidence supporting it. Understand its significance as the foundation of Israel's relationship with God and its relevance for biblical theology.
  • Through this lesson, you will understand the theological, structural, and thematic intricacies of the book of Genesis. You'll grasp its role as a foundational text in both the Old and New Testaments, exploring themes of covenant, creation, fall, redemption, and the fulfillment of promises. You'll gain insights into the genealogical structure of Genesis, its portrayal of key biblical figures like Adam, Noah, and Abraham, and its connection to the overarching narrative of the gospel.
  • Exodus reveals Yahweh's promise—"I will be with you"—unfolding divine presence and covenant. It anticipates Jesus as fulfillment—a better Moses and Tabernacle—ushering in God's eternal presence among humanity.
  • Studying Leviticus unveils the intricate system of laws and rituals at Mount Sinai. It explains sacrificial atonement, priestly consecration, purity laws, and the theme of holiness, prefiguring Jesus as the ultimate priest, sacrifice, and source of holiness.
  • Discover the Book of Numbers' insights on Israel's journey, God's faithfulness, consequences of disobedience, and parallels to Christ, cautioning against questioning God's holiness and emphasizing His desire to dwell among His people through the Holy Spirit.
  • Gain insight into Deuteronomy's covenant renewal for Israel entering Canaan, emphasizing obedience, typology, and its relevance for Christian living.
  • Gain deep insight into the former prophets, exploring themes of Yahweh's faithfulness, Israel's unfaithfulness, and the typological significance of the Mosaic covenant. Understand its relation to the Abrahamic covenant and its fulfillment in the New Covenant under Jesus, revealing God's plan for restoration.
  • Joshua unveils Joshua's leadership, divine promise fulfillment in Canaan, obedience's significance, and Jesus as the ultimate fulfiller of God's promises.
  • Discover the Book of Judges, detailing Israel's history and faith journey. Learn about judges as deliverers from oppression and idolatry, portraying parallels with Christ's ministry. Uncover a pattern of uncreation due to idolatry, emphasizing the need for an eternal judge—Jesus Christ—to save from corruption.
  • In this lesson, Dr. Miles Van Pelt provides insights into the book of Samuel, exploring its characters, themes, and the transition from judgeship to kingship in Israel. Learn of the significance of the Davidic covenant, culminating in Jesus as the ultimate King of Kings.
  • Gain insights into the Book of Kings, revealing its historical and theological significance. Discover the fulfillment of Davidic covenant, reasons for Israel's exile, and anticipation of the new covenant. Recognize Jesus as the ultimate fulfillment of its promises.
  • This lesson reviews latter prophets' insights into Israel's exile for breaking the Mosaic Covenant, the prophetic office's nature, diverse prophecy genres, and the execution of covenant lawsuits, all pointing to God's judgment and hope for restoration.
  • Explore Isaiah's profound prophetic themes, from redemption to impending judgment. Unravel his life and ministry's context, review the debate around authorship, and learn essential tools for study.
  • Enjoy this lesson on Jeremiah, a second Moses figure, and his prophetic message of repentance, redemption, and a new covenant. Explore the book's chiastic structure, historical context, and theological significance, offering hope amidst Judah's fall.
  • Studying Ezekiel reveals its focus on the glory of the Lord and the temple. You learn of Ezekiel's exile, his visions, and themes like covenant theology, creation, and apocalyptic elements, offering profound insights into hope amidst crisis.
  • Discover insights into the minor prophets' diverse genres and themes, from covenant infidelity to divine restoration. Witness Jonah's repentance narrative and prophetic visions culminating in Christ's fulfillment. Embrace Yahweh's justice and compassion, urging Israel's return, leading to Jesus as the ultimate authority.
  • Understand the structure and themes of the Hebrew Bible's writings section. Explore diverse literary forms, intentional divisions mirroring prophets, and the overarching theme of exile and return, illuminating Israel's covenant journey.
  • Discover the depth of the Book of Psalms: 150 songs divided into 5 books, expressing diverse emotions and worship forms. Explore themes, structure, and practical applications for personal devotion and prayer.
  • Gain insights into human suffering and theodicy through Job's trials. Explore themes of faith, resilience, and God's sovereignty amidst adversity. Discover hope in God's incomprehensible sovereignty amid life's trials.
  • Proverbs is a book of timeless wisdom from Solomon, who was gifted by God. By studying this book, you can learn to navigate life with righteousness and discernment, rooted in the fear of the Lord.
  • Journey through Ruth, where redemption, loyalty, and divine providence intertwine. Ruth, a symbol of strength, aligns with Boaz, embodying ancient customs. Their union shapes history, reflecting the enduring legacy of faith amidst life's complexities.
  • Explore the Song of Songs for insights into marriage and intimacy. It navigates the tension between true love and temptation, advocating for unwavering commitment and passionate intimacy, reflecting God's desired relationship. Discover timeless wisdom for modern-day love and marriage.
  • Ecclesiastes reveals life's futility without God, emphasizing the necessity of fearing Him. Through Solomon's wisdom, it prompts reflection on divine purpose amid existential questions.
  • In Lamentations, mourn the fall of Jerusalem and exile, finding hope in God's sovereignty.
  • The book of Esthers contains themes of providence, hiddenness of God, and faithfulness in exile. You will uncover the intricacies of Esther and Mordecai's roles in the deliverance of the Jewish people, as well as the establishment of the festival of Purim. This study will equip you with insights into how God's providence operates amidst human events, even when His presence may seem concealed, and how faithfulness in exile can lead to unexpected outcomes of deliverance and restoration.
  • Through this lesson on the book of Daniel, you'll gain insights into its structure, themes of faithfulness in exile, comparisons with Joseph, and its significance for understanding apocalyptic literature, providing a comprehensive understanding of God's sovereignty and care for His people.
  • Explore Ezra and Nehemiah for insights into post-exilic restoration, intertwining faith, governance, and cultural renewal. These books point towards a deeper longing for true and lasting restoration and echo themes found in apocalyptic literature such as the book of Revelation.
  • The Book of Chronicles traces Israel's history, emphasizing kingship, priesthood, and divine selection. It anticipates restoration, pointing to Jesus as the ultimate priest-king who fulfills God's promises.

Understanding the Old Testament 
Dr. Miles Van Pelt
Lesson Transcript

We've now come to the book of Exodus, having finished Genesis. Exodus is the second book in the law of God or the books of Moses. Its Hebrew name is Wa'el HaShemoth, and these are the names. Again, they're just the first words in the book in Hebrew. That's how Hebrew likes to name these books in the first five books. But note the presence of the conjunction "and" in Hebrew that is not reflected in most of the translations.

At the beginning of Exodus, in Exodus 1:1, it normally just begins with something like, these are the names. But in Hebrew, we have this very important conjunction, and these are the names. And that conjunction tells you one thing, that the material that follows is connected to what has come before. So Exodus is the natural and next outworking of the book of Genesis. 

The book of Exodus begins with the birth of Moses, the covenant mediator, and the author of the book itself. It covers approximately 80 years. Moses' first 40 years in Egypt, and then his second 40 years in Midian in exile from Egypt. The purpose of Exodus is to explain how the Israelites became slaves in Egypt and their deliverance from Egyptian oppression. The book also reveals the God whose name is Yahweh and relates how his divine name or presence came to dwell among his people in Israel.

The book of Exodus also lays the foundation for the biblical theme of the divine presence, which runs through the rest of the Bible, where we have the call of Moses at the burning bush, the plagues of judgment against Pharaoh and the Egyptians, the fire and cloud at the Red Sea, the same fire and cloud at Mount Sinai called a Theophany, where God appears in fire and cloud, Yahweh's appearance to Moses in glory on the rock, and the instructions for the tabernacle in which God comes to dwell at the end of the book in chapter 40. Meaning this, one of the great themes in the Bible after the book of Genesis where humanity is exiled from God's presence in Genesis 3 and 4 is how humanity will get back into that presence. And so the theme of the divine presence picks up here in the covenant books because the covenant theme is this, I will be your God, you will be my people, and I will dwell in your midst.

That is, we're going to get back to Eden, but in an even bigger way. And the book of Exodus begins this theme right in chapter 3. In terms of genre, the vast majority of Exodus is narrative, including both narrated events and recorded speech, but there is also very ancient poetry, for example, the song of Yahweh's victory at the Red Sea and the laws of the covenant or legal material. We've already covered date and authorship in our introduction, and so we're thinking Moses between 1446 and 1406 BC.

In terms of its outline or contents, the book of Exodus begins with the book of Moses. It records the 10 plagues, Israel's exodus from Egypt, Egypt's destruction in the Red Sea, Israel tested in the wilderness, the great Sinai theophany or appearance of the Lord and the making of the covenant, the building of the Tabernacle, the tragedy of the golden calf, and then Yahweh coming to dwell in the tabernacle. Those are the major events. And so one of the best things to do when you're taking this course is to be reading these books amid these lectures so that you're getting the fuller content and I'm kind of telling you how those books work and what the major points are to focus on. 

The book of Exodus can be divided into three major sections. The first section spans Chapter 1 verse 1 to Chapter 15 verse 21. And we can entitle this section Yahweh enthroned over the Red Sea as Israel's warrior king. Yahweh enthroned over the Red Sea as Israel's warrior king. And that's from 1:1 to 15:21. The second section goes from 15:22 to the end of chapter 24 at 24:18. Here we can describe this section as Yahweh enthroned over Mount Sinai as Israel's covenant king. The third section goes from Exodus 25 to the end in chapter 40 and can be entitled this way Yahweh enthroned in the Tabernacle as Israel's God. So three sections all of them being characterized as Yahweh being enthroned over something as a particular manifestation. Yahweh enthroned over the Red Sea as Israel's warrior king to deliver them. Yahweh enthroned over Mount Sinai as Israel's covenant king to enter into a relationship with them. And then Yahweh enthroned in the Tabernacle as the God who would be in fact with them and in their presence the object of worship. 

In the first section where Yahweh is enthroned over the Red Sea as Israel's warrior king, we have the birth and the call of Moses in Exodus 1 to 4. We have Moses confronts Pharaoh for Yahweh in Exodus 5 and 6. The 10 great plagues in Exodus 7 through 11. The Passover and the death of the firstborn in Exodus 12 and 13. And then the great Exodus event and the song of victory in Exodus 14 to 15:21. We'll note later that Israel's exodus from Egypt, Egypt's destruction in the Red Sea and Israel's passing through the Red Sea is the Old Testament salvation event that will be reflected on over and over again both in the former prophets, the latter prophets, and the writings. That Exodus event is like the New Testament crucifixion and resurrection.

In the second section where Yahweh is enthroned over Mount Sinai as Israel's covenant king we have two parts. First in chapters 15 to 19 testing in the wilderness where Israel will be tested for their faith in which they will fail in each instance. And the second section runs from Exodus 20 to 24 and this is called the Sinai or Mosaic covenant code.This is when Moses is on the mountain for 40 days and 40 nights receiving the law of God, Israel's covenant. Once that has happened in the third section we have Yahweh enthroned in the Tabernacle as Israel's God in Exodus 25 to 40. This begins with the instructions for the Tabernacle where we have Sabbath will be the sign of the covenant. Then we have the tragic building of the golden calf in Exodus 32 to 40. Then we have the building of the tabernacle in Exodus 35 to 40. Sections one and three climax with a remarkable display of God's presence the smoke and the fire over Israel.

Section two is dominated by the presence of God on Mount Sinai with the making of the covenant and the giving of the law. So in this particular section Exodus we're talking about how God will enter into a covenant with his people and dwell among them. What is the covenantal relationship? How will God be married to his people? And what are the rules of that marriage? Next, we'll consider three major events that transpire in the book of Exodus that will help you to understand kind of the fuller expression of what's happening in the book of Exodus. The first will be the call of Moses and the revelation of the divine name in Exodus chapter 3. The second will be the tragedy of the golden calf and the glory of the Lord in Exodus 32 to 40.And finally, we'll talk about the indwelling of the temple or the indwelling of Yahweh of the Tabernacle in Exodus 40. So call of Moses, the golden calf, and Yahweh filling the Tabernacle in Exodus 40. 

The first one let's consider this the call of Moses and the revelation of the divine name in Exodus 3. In the book of Exodus Yahweh appears to Moses and calls him to be his prophetic covenant mediator which is to be Yahweh's mouthpiece to Israel and Pharaoh to both condemn Pharaoh and to enter into a covenant with Israel. We have the divine presence appearing in a burning bush the famous burning bush episode in Exodus 3:1 to 10. Then we have the divine presence and the sign in 3:11 through 12 and the revelation of the divine name in Exodus 3:13 to 15 where we get not just the name of Yahweh revealed but we get the meaning of the name of Yahweh revealed. 

Now we want to talk about the meaning of the name of Yahweh because it's something often misunderstood in schools of thought. To do this we need to consider how names work in the Old Testament and here's how they work. In the Old Testament especially in the Pentateuch or the first five books names are often shorthand expressions that encode larger concepts. Names are shorthand expressions that encode larger concepts. Let me give you several examples and then I'll tell you how it works in Exodus 3. For example, Adam will name Eve in Genesis 3:20 where it says the man called his wife's name Eve because she was the mother of all living. Eve simply means living or alive but the name Eve is supposed to remind us that she's not just Eve living but she's the mother of all living that is from her the source of humanity comes. Another example is Noah in Genesis 5:29 where his father says and he that is Lamech his father called his name Noah saying out of the ground that the Lord has cursed this one shall bring us relief from our work and the painful toil of our hands. So Noah means rest or relief but that's supposed to remind us that the Lord is going to bring us rest and relief from the work and the painful toil of our hands. So not just rest or relief from anything but rest from the curse of Genesis 3. 

Another good example is Abraham in Genesis 17:5 no longer shall you be called Abram but your name shall be called Abraham for I've made you the father of a multitude of nations. Abraham just means a father of many but this is a father of a multitude of nations. It's a different thing.So the name is a short form of something that's longer. Okay, the same is true of Jacob and Israel and Moses and others throughout the Old Testament. So the question then becomes what does it mean for us in Exodus 17:1 to 7, where it says now Moses, well I'll just begin in 3:1 "Now Moses was taking the flock of Jethro his father-in-law the priest of Midian and he led the flock to the far side of the wilderness and came to Horeb the mountain of God. There the angel of Yahweh appeared to him in the flames of fire from within the bush. Moses saw that the bush was on fire and it did not burn up so Moses thought I'll go over and see this strange sight. Why is the bush not burning up?" Then later God says "Do not come any closer." God said, "Take off your sandals for the place you are standing is holy ground. Then he said I am the God of your fathers the God of Abraham the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob. At this Moses hit his face because he's afraid to look at God. The Lord said I have indeed seen the misery of my people in Egypt I've heard their cry them cry out because of their slave drivers and I am concerned about their suffering. So I've come down to rescue them from the hand of the Egyptians and to bring them up out into the land into a good and spacious land a land flowing with milk and honey. The home of the Canaanites the Hittites the Amorites Perizzites Hivites and Jebusites. Now the Israelites' cry has reached me and I have seen the way the Egyptians are oppressing them. So now go I am sending you to Pharaoh to bring my people the Israelites out of Egypt. But Moses said to God who am I that I should go to Pharaoh and bring the Israelites out of Egypt. And God said I will be with you and this will be the sign to you that I have sent you. When you have brought the people out of Egypt you'll worship God on this mountain." 

Now here's what I want you to understand when God speaks to Moses after Moses objects he says I will be with you I will be with you. In Hebrew that's a very special verb: I will be, and then that prepositional phrase with you. Every time that verb in the Pentateuch occurs, every time it always occurs as the promise of the divine presence that God will be with someone or with something. Remember the promise of the divine presence and the theme of the divine presence is a big theme in Exodus and the rest of the Bible.

Then later Moses will say here in verse 13 suppose I go to the Israelites and say to them the God of your fathers has sent me to you and they ask me what is his name. And you so say to them God said to the Israelites I am who I am or better I will be because I will be. This is what you were to say to the Israelites I will be has sent me with you.

Okay, now the question is I will be what? Recall the principle of a name in Hebrew, especially in the Pentateuch encodes a longer concept and the name is just that shorter reminder. Well, we know from back in earlier in Exodus where God says I will be with you. It's that same verb here in verse 14 of Exodus 3 where God says I will be what who or because I will be. So the name means the name means I will be with you. So when you take upon yourself when you take upon your lips that divine name Yahweh what you're saying is he will be and then you ask the question he will be what? With you. The divine name is the promise of the divine presence that's why we call his covenant name because the covenant is I will be your God you'll be my people and I will dwell in your midst. I will be with you. That's why we have in Isaiah the prophet naming the son Emmanuel and then in the book of Matthew Jesus is called Emmanuel which means God with us.

Jesus is the Yahweh of the Old Testament and this is the thing Moses is trying to get across through this. Okay, remember this the meaning of the divine name is the promise of the divine presence. Yahweh means Emmanuel, God with us that's what we get as a revelation of the divine name in Exodus 3. Now the divine name Yahweh is used earlier for example Abraham will take it upon his lips the patriarchs it's used in Genesis chapter 2. It's not that it wasn't known or used earlier but in Exodus chapter 3 we get the meaning of the name Yahweh he will be. He will be what? He will be with us and this is the name that we're to use for the God of the Old Testament Yahweh. 

The second major event that we're going to talk about is the golden calf and the glory of Yahweh in Exodus 32 through 40 because it has to deal with the nature of the divine name and the promise of the divine presence. Here we have the sin of the golden calf and the designation of Israel as stiff-necked for the first time and here's the context. Moses is up on Mount Sinai 40 days and 40 nights and he's receiving the law of God and the very first two laws are you shall have no other gods before me so make no other images. Israel is at the base of the mountain having other gods before them and making images so when Moses comes down from the mountain he breaks the tablets as a symbol of breaking the covenant and he has to re-engage God and intercede for them not to destroy them and to re-enter the covenant. In that context and for reassurance that God will indeed be with them and in their presence he makes this statement in Exodus 33:18 to 23 Moses said to Yahweh "Please show me your glory that is your presence." And he said, "I will make all of my goodness pass before me I will make all of my goodness pass before you and will proclaim before you my name Yahweh, my name my presence. And I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious and I will show mercy on whom I will show mercy. But he said, You cannot see my face for a man shall not see me and live. And the Lord said, behold there is a place by me where you shall stand on the rock, and when my glory passes by I will put you in the cleft of the rock and I will cover you with my hand until I have passed by. Then I'll take my hand away and you'll see my back but my face you will not see." 

Then later in chapter 34 verses 4 to 7, " Then Moses cut two tablets of stone like the first and he rose early in the morning and he went up on Mount Sinai as the Lord commanded him. And he took the two tablets of stone the Lord descended in the cloud he stood with him there and he proclaimed the name of Yahweh. The Lord passed before him and proclaimed, (so this is now Moses in the cleft of the rock Yahweh's hand is over him and the Lord preaches a sermon on his name Yahweh) Yahweh a God merciful and gracious slow to anger and abounding steadfast love and faithfulness keeping steadfast love for thousands forgiving iniquity transgression and sin but who will by no means clear the guilty, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children and the children's children to the third and fourth generations."

So in Exodus 3, we get the meaning of the divine name Yahweh, will be with you. In Exodus 34 we get a sermon on the divine name, how will he be with us as a God merciful and gracious slow to anger abounding steadfast love and faithfulness, keeping steadfast love for thousands forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin. The God of mercy will be with us that's how we have to understand that particular text. That is the only way God can be with us is by being a God merciful and gracious slow to anger and abounding steadfast love because he's going to come at one point and then the next part is he's going to by no means clear the guilty visiting the iniquity of the fathers and the children and the children's children to the third and fourth generation. How is he going to do that? Ultimately on the cross. That's why he can say on the one hand I'll be merciful but on the other hand, I will get retribution and exact judgment so I'll be satisfied. My wrath will be abated that's what that verse encodes so God or Yahweh will be with us. That's the second main point. 

Third, we see this symbol as a symbol of the last times in God's endowing of the tabernacle in Exodus 40. This is the climax of the book of Exodus where God now dwells amid his people in the Tabernacle with the tribes all camped around. Here's what it says in Exodus 40:34, "Then the cloud covered the tent of meeting and the glory of the Lord filled the tabernacle and Moses was not able to enter the tent of meeting because the cloud settled on it and the glory of the Lord filled the tabernacle throughout all their journeys. Whenever the cloud was taken up from the Tabernacle, the people of Israel would set out but if the cloud was not taken up then they did not set out till the day was taken up for the cloud of the Lord was on the Tabernacle by day and fire was in it by night in the sight of all of the house of Israel through all of their journeys." Now this is the same thing that happens in First Kings 8 when Solomon dedicates the temple and the glory of the Lord will fill that temple like it filled the Tabernacle. Note later we're going to consider Ezra and Nehemiah when they rebuild the temple and the glory does not return the glory of the Lord will not return in fullness to the Tabernacle temple complex until revelation 21 and 22 when that glory returns to a new temple and a new heaven and new earth. So this is the first time and it's a type or a symbol, a down payment of what we're to expect in the end. Exodus 3 the Lord's name means I'll be with you. Exodus 34 how he'll be with us. Exodus 40 the nature in which he'll be with us and all those things are a sign of the great final last temple. We can call it the eschatological temple in the new heavens and new earth. 

How is the book of Exodus considered something to be the gospel promise beforehand? A couple of points before we close out this lecture. First Jesus is the true and better Moses. Second, Jesus is the true and better Tabernacle. And third, Jesus is the ultimate expression of the divine name. Those are my three points for you. Number one, Jesus is the true and better Moses. In Hebrews 3:3 to 6 Jesus mediates a better covenant and is a better covenant mediator. Consider these words for Jesus has been counted worthy of more glory than Moses. But isn't Moses a type of him as much more glory as the builder of a house has more honor than the house itself? For every house is built by someone but the builder of all things is God. Now Moses was faithful in all of God's house as a servant to testify to the things that were spoken later, but Christ is faithful over God's house as a son. Jesus is the true and better Moses. 

Point two, Jesus is the true and better Tabernacle. Revelation 21 and 22, And I saw no temple in the city for its temple is the Lord God the Almighty and the lamb Jesus the true and better tabernacle. 

Point three, Jesus is the ultimate expression of the divine name, God with us as the now everlasting presence of God. Matthew 1:22 to 23 says this, All this that is his birth took place to fulfill what the Lord had said through the prophet Isaiah, the virgin will be with child and will give birth to a son and they will call him Emmanuel which means God with us. Jesus is the ultimate expression of the divine name he will be with us as man and he has left his spirit in us as the down payment of that reality for the new heavens and the new earth. 

Let me close by saying this. It's not that these realities aren't real in the book of Exodus. Yes, God dwelt among his people. He revealed his name. He was with them but it didn't solve the problem of him being in their presence forever while not breaking out in wrath because of their sin. For this reason, these things are types and shadows of the things to come not the ultimate things to come. These things are good and real and wonderful in as much as they point to that which is better and more real and most wonderful. That's where you'd understand these books and these realities and institutions in the book of Exodus.