d.217. Bishop of Rome from 198. He succeeded Victor, but despite his nineteen-year pontificate little is known of his life. His severe critic, Hippolytus,* described him as being “lax” in the matter of enforcing the church's position against certain heresies—e.g., Sabellianism*-and characterized him as a man “without education.” Zephyrinus did, however, excommunicate Theodotus, the “money changer” who defended Dynamic Monarchianism, since he had given support in large measure to two disciples of Noetus* (Epigonus and Cleomenes) who defended the Modalistic position. Tradition says Zephyrinus was martyred.