1691-1781. Roman Catholic writer. Born to Protestant parents, he was educated in Roman Catholic households after his father's death and embraced that faith at the age of thirteen. A student at Douai, he became successively professor and vice-president there, returning to England in 1738 when he joined the London Mission. Following a controversy with Conyers Middleton, he returned to Douai in 1738 and was consecrated a bishop (in partibus) at Hammersmith in 1741, becoming vicar apostolic in 1758. He produced a modernized version of the Douai Old and New Testaments (1749, 1750), wrote anti-Protestant tracts, martyrologies, and two popular devotional works, The Garden of the Soul (1740) and Meditations for Every Day of the Year (1753).