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MAID, MAIDEN. 1. Hebrew ’āmâh, handmaiden, or female slave, the property of her owners (
2. Hebrew bethûlâh, virgin, a girl secluded and separated from intercourse with men. Often used with this meaning (
3. Hebrew har‘ărâh, girl, maiden (
4. Hebrew ‘almâh, a girl of marriageable age, occurs only seven times (
1. אָמָה, H563, “maid,” “a maidservant,” “handmaid” (female slave); ancilla, pelex (
4. עַלְמָה, H6625, “a girl,” “maiden,” “young woman” ripe sexually; of marriageable age, the age of puberty: maid or newly married. KJV “virgin.” This word occurs fourteen times in the OT. Only context can determine the precise meaning; e.g., from
1. Κοράσιον is a diminutive (in later Gr.) of κόρη, “little girl,” “maiden.” LXX for three Heb. words. It occurs twenty-nine times in the LXX; eight times in the NT. It might be a tr. of the Aram. רְבִיתָא.
2. Νεα̂νις, “girl,” “maiden.” A poetic word; LXX for two Heb. terms. It appears thirty-nine times in the LXX; absent from the NT. As an adjective, it means “youthful,” “new.”
3. Νύμφη, “young wife,” “bride”; “marriageable maiden”; “daughter-in-law”; “young girl.” LXX for two Heb. words. It occurs in both Philo and Josephus; eighty-eight times in the LXX; eight times in the NT.
4. Παιείσκη is a diminutive of παι̂ς, G4090, “young girl,” “maiden.” Originally παιδίσκη, G4087, meant “a young woman”; later it came to denote “a female slave.” In Christian lit. invariably of the servant class (“maid” “servant girl,” “female slave”). Thus Herodotus, papyri, and Philo. The LXX uses it to tr. four Heb. words. It appears ninety times in the LXX; thirteen times in the NT.
5. Παρθένος is the usual Gr. term for “virgin.” LXX for three Heb. words. It occurs sixty-four times in the LXX; fourteen times in the NT. In Biblical usage a “virgin” is either a male (
F. Delitzsch, Biblical Commentary on the Prophecies of Isaiah, I (1877), 216-220; G. F. Oehler, Theology of the, I (1880), 355; J. Calvin, Commentary on Isaiah the Prophet, I (1953), 103, 244-248; J. P. Lange, The Prophet Isaiah, Vol. VI in Commentary on the Holy Scriptures (1960), 121; J. G. Machen, of Christ (1967), 289-297.
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1915)
mad, mad’-’n: Used in thein the sense of a girl or young female; of an unmarried woman or virgin, and of a female servant or handmaid. Thus, it translates several Hebrew words:
(2) The Hebrew `almah, also rendered "maid," refers to a woman of marriageable age (
(4) Two Hebrew words covering the idea of service, handmaid, handmaiden, and in numerous passages so rendered:
(a) ’amah, translated "maid" (
(b) shiphchah, "a family servant," "a handmaid," so rendered in numerous passages ("maid," "maiden,"
(5) The rather rare word habra, "favorite slave," is rendered "maid" in Judith 10:2,5; 13:9; 16:23;15:2,7.
(6) doule, "female slave," in the King James Version Judith 12:49 (the(British and American) "servant").
Maidservant means simply a female slave in the different positions which such a woman naturally occupies. They were the property of their masters; sometimes held the position of concubines (
"Maidservants" replaces "maidens" of the King James Version in