1813-1871. Archbishop of Paris. From humble origins in Fays-Billot, he was curate at St. Dizier, taught at Langres (1839-45), then became chaplain at the Lycée Henri IV where he occupied increasingly important diocesan posts. As bishop of Nancy, his writings showed a deep interest in education. Archbishop from 1863, he was a strong defender of episcopal rights and a determined Gallican. So strongly did he oppose the definition of papal infallibility that he tried to persuade Napoleon III to intervene at Vatican Council I.* He eventually submitted and exemplified important pastoral instructions by his distinguished care for the needy during the siege of Paris (1870-71). He was executed by the Commune while blessing his executioners.