1858-1940. German scholar. Born in Kiel, he studied at Göttingen, Bonn, Berlin, and Greifswald, showing great ability in ancient languages. From 1887 he held chairs in six universities, including Strasbourg and Göttingen, before settling at Berlin in 1919. Early in his career he turned his attention to the early history and literature of the church, and published editions of Eusebius's Ecclesiastical History (with T. Mommsen) and Tatian's Oration to the Greeks. Later followed studies on Athanasius, Nestorius, Theodosius the Deacon, and Constantine and the church. His greatest work was the publication (interrupted but not stopped by World War I) of the Acta Conciliorum Oecumenicorum, an edition of the Greek councils. In it were critical editions of the “decrees” of the councils of Ephesus (431) and Chalcedon (451). A friend of the English scholar C.H. Turner, he saw through the press for him the seventh fascicule of Turner's Ecclesiae Occidentalis Monumenta in 1939.