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dik’-shun-a-riz: A dictionary is a word-book or a list of words arranged in some fixed order, generally alphabetical, for ready reference, and usually with definitions or longer treatises. The vocabulary or glossary is a mere list of words, often without definitions; the Lexicon or dictionary of language (words or concepts) has bare definitions, and the alphabetical encyclopedia or dictionary of knowledge or information (objects, things, subjects, topics, etc.) has longer treatises, but they are all dictionaries: the alphabetical order being the main essential in modern use. There is, however, historically no good reason why the dictionary should not be logical or chronological. The earliest use of the word as quoted by Murray’s Dictionary (Joh. de Garlandia, circa 1225) was of a collection of words classified and not alphabetical. So, too, almost the earliest use in English (J. Withal’s Dictionarie, 1556) was of a book of words classified by subjects. A book like Roget’s Thesaurus, which is a list of classified words without definition, or a systematic encyclopedia of treatises like Coleridge’s unfortunate experiment, the Encyclopedia Metropolitana, is a dictionary in the historic sense. The earliest books usually quoted in the lists of Biblical dictionaries were also in fact classified or chronological, and not alphabetical (Eusebius’ Onomasticon; Jerome’s De viris illustribus). Classified word lists, syllabaries, etc., of pre-alphabetic times, as well as in Chinese and other non-alphabetic languages of today, are of course also non-alphabetic, but strictly dictionaries.

In pre-alphabetic times the dictionaries include, besides the syllabaries of which there were many examples in Assyria, Babylonia, Egypt, Cyprus, etc., and the word lists proper, chronological lists of kings and various classified lists of tribute, and of astronomical or other objects. They include, in short, all the many lists where the material is grouped round a series of catchwords.

The alphabetical dictionary began with the alphabet itself, for this is a list of names of objects. The earlier alphabetical dictionaries were sometimes called alphabets. In a sense the alphabetical acrostics are dictionaries rather than acrostics, and Ps 119, where considerable material is grouped under each letter of the alphabet, comes rather close to the dictionary idea.

So long as the quantity of literary material remained small, there was very little need for the development of the alphabetical dictionary, and the examples are rather few, the Lexicon of Suidas being perhaps the most noteworthy. With the immense increase in literary material there was a rapidly growing appreciation of the advantage of alphabetical arrangement, over the chronological or the systematic, in all cases where the object is to refer to a specific topic, rather than to read a book through or survey many topics with reference to their relation to one another. The number of alphabetical dictionaries of knowledge increased rapidly with the growth of learning from the 13th century; now it has become legion and there are few subjects so narrow that they cannot boast their dictionary of information.

1. Bible Dictionaries:

The earliest Bible dictionary is usually counted the Eusebius, Onomasticon of Eusebius, a geographical encyclopedia; then came Jerome’s De nominibus hebraicis, and his De viris illustribus (chronological). The more noteworthy steps in the history of Bible dictionaries are represented by the names of Alsted, Calmet, Winer, Kitto, William Smith, Fairbairn, Schenkel. The best recent dictionaries among the larger works are the Encyclopedia Biblica, standing for the extreme higher critical wing; Hastings, representing the slightly less radical; and this present International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, which represents a growing distrust of the extreme positions of the 19th century higher critics. All of these are on a large scale and stand for the latest and best scholarship, and the same quality is reflected in at least two of the recent single-volume dictionaries, A Standard Bible Dictionary (M. W. Jacobus), and the single-volume Hastings’ dictionary. Both of these in tendency stand between Cheyne’s Encyclopedia Biblica and this dictionary, Hastings facing rather toward Cheyne, and Jacobus toward this present work.

2. Bibliography:

The John Crerar Library list of encyclopedias forms an excellent guide to the literature of general encyclopedias within its scope, which includes chiefly technology and physical and social sciences, but includes among its reference books very admirably chosen first-reference dictionaries to language, history, fine arts, and even philosophy and religion.

Kroeger, Alice B. Guide to the Study and Use of Reference Books, 2nd edition, Boston, 1908, is an admirable introduction. Its select lists and bibliographical references supplemented by the John Crerar and other reference library lists will give complete orientation.

Following is a list of previous dictionaries:


Ayre, J. Treasury of Bible Knowledge. London, 1866.

Barnum, Samuel W. A Comprehensive Dictionary of the Bible. New York: Appleton, 1867.

Barr, John. A Complete Index and Concise Dictionary of the Holy Bible. New York: Methodist Book Concern, 1852.

Bastow, J. A. Biblical Dictionary. London, 1848, 3 volumes; condensed edition, London, 1859; 4th edition, 1877.

Beck, J. C. Vollstand. bibl. Worterbuch. Basel, 1770, 2 volumes.

Besser, H. Bibl. Worterbuch. Gotha, 1866.

Bible Cyclopaedia, The. London: Parker, 1841.

Bost, J. A. Dictionnaire de la Bible. Paris, 1865.

Bourazan, F. A. Sacred Dictionary. London: Nisbet, 1890.

Brown, John. A Dictionary of the Holy Bible. Edinburgh, 1768, 4th edition; London: Murray, 1797; American edition, from the 12th Edinburgh edition, New York: Harper, 1846.

Calmet, A. Dict. historique, critique, chronologique, geographique et litteral de la Bible. Paris, 1719.

Calmet, Augustine. Dictionary of the Holy Bible. 5th edition, revised and enlarged, 5 volumes, London: Holdsworth, 1829; new edition, London: Bohn, 1847; abridged by Buckley, new edition, London: Routledge, 1862.

Cassell’s Bible Dictionary. Illustrated with nearly 600 engravings; London and New York, 2 volumes: Cassell, 1866; new edition, 1869.

Cheyne, T. K. and Black, J. S. Encyclopedia Biblica. London, 1899-1903, 4 volumes.

Conder, F. R. and C. R. A Handbook to the Bible. London: Longmans, 1879; 2nd edition, 1880, New York: Randolph, no date (1880).

Dalmasius, J. A. Dictionarium manuale biblicum. Aug. Vind., 1776, 2 volumes.

Davis, J. D. Dictionary of the Bible. Philadelphia, 1898; new edition, 1903.

Eadie, John. A Biblical Cyclopaedia. London: Rel. Tr. Soc., 1848; 14th edition, London: Griffin, 1873.

Easton, M. G. Illustrated Bible Dictionary. London: Nelson; New York: Methodist Book Concern, 1893.

Fairbairn, Patrick. The Imperial Bible Dictionary. London: Blackie, 1866, 2 volumes.

Farrar, John. A Biblical and Theological Dictionary. London: Mason, 1852; new edition, London: Wesl. Conf. Off., 1889.

Faussett, A. R. The Englishman’s Bible Encyclopedia. London: Hodder, 1878. Republished with title. Bible Cyclopaedia, Critical and Expository. New York: Funk, 1891.

Gardner, J. Christian Encyclopedia. Edinburgh, no date

Gebhardt, G. L. Biblisches Worterb. Lemgo, 1793-96, 3 volumes.

Goodhue, W. and Taylor, W. C. Pictorial Dictionary of the Holy Bible. London, 1843, 2 volumes.

Granbery, John C. Bible Dictionary. Nashville: So. Meth. Pub. Soc., 1883.

Green, S. Biblical and Theol. Dictionary. London, 1840, 1860.

Guthe, H. Kurzes Bibelworterbuch. 1903.

Hagen. Lexicon biblicum. Paris, 1905-, 4 volumes (Roman Catholic).

Hamburger. Realencyklopadie fur Bibel und Talmud. New edition 1896-97; 2 volumes and 4 supplementary volumes (Jewish point of view).

Hamburger, J. Biblisch-talmudisches Worterbuch. Strelitz, 1866.

Hastings. Dictionary of the Bible. Edinburgh and New York, 1898-1902, 4 volumes and supplementary vol, 1904. 1-vol edition, 1909.

Hastings, James, and others. Dictionary of Christ and the Gospels. New York: Scribner; Edinburgh: Clark, 1906-8, 2 volumes.

Haupt, C. G. Bibl. Real-Encyklopadie. Quedlinb., 1820-27, 3 volumes.

Hezel, W. F. Biblisches Real-Lexikon. Leipzig, 1783-85, 3 volumes.

Hoffmann, A. C. Allgem. Volks-Bibellexikon. Leipzig, 1842.

Hunter, R. Concise Bible Dict. London: Cassell, 1894.

Inglis, James. Bible Text Cyclopaedia. London: Houlston, 1861; new edition, Rel. Tr. Soc., 1865, Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1877.

Jacobus, M. W. A Standard Bible Dictionary. New York: Funk, 1909.

Jones, William. The Biblical Cyclopaedia; or Dictionary of the Holy Scriptures. London: Wightman, 1840; new edition, Tegg, 1847; revised, 1873.

Kitto, John. Cyclopaedia of Biblical Literature. 3rd ed., edition Alexander, Edinburgh, 1862-65, 3 volumes (best edition of Kitto), and after.

Krehl. Neutestamentl. Handworterbuch. Gottingen, 1857.

Lawson, J. P. Bible Cyclopaedia. London, 1849, 3 volumes.

Leun, F. G. Bibl. Encyklopadie. Gotha, 1793-98, 4 volumes.

Macbean, A. Dictionary of the Bible. London, 1779.

Macpherson, John. The Universal Bible Dictionary. London: Hodder, 1892.

Malcom, Howard. New Bible Dictionary. Boston: Gould; New York: Sheldon, 1852.

Malcom, H. Dictionary of the Bible. London, 1854.

Oetinger, F. C. Biblisches Worterb. Stuttgart, 1849.

Oliver, P. Scripture Lexicon. Birmingham, 1784; London, 1843.

Otho, J. H. Lex. Rabbinico-philologicum. Geneva, 1675.

Rand, W. W. A Dictionary of the Holy Bible. New York: Am. Tr. Soc., no date (1859); rev. edition, 1886.

Ravanel, P. Bibliotheca Sacra. Geneva, 1660.

Rawson, A. L. The Bible Handbook, for Sunday Schools. 4th edition, New York: Thompson, 1870.

Rechenbergius, A. Hierolexicon reale collectum. Leipzig und Frankfort, 1714, 2 volumes.

Rice, Edwin W. People’s Dictionary of the Bible. Philadelphia: Am. S. S. U., 1893.

Riehm and Bathgen. Handworterbuch des biblischen Altertums. Bielefeld, 1893-94, 2 volumes.

Roberts, Francis. Clavis Bibliorum. 1675.

Robinson, E. Dictionary of the Bible. New York: Worthington, 1879.

Schaff, Philip. A Dictionary of the Bible. Philadelphia: Am. S. S. U., 1880; 5th edition, 1890.

Schenkel. Bibel Lexikon. 1869-75, 5 volumes.

Schneider, M. C. F. Worterb. ub. d. Bibel. Leipzig, 1795-1817, 4 volumes.

Simon, Richard. Grand dictionnaire de la Bible. Lyons, 1693.

Smith, W. Dictionary of the Bible. London, 1860-63, 3 volumes; 2nd edition, Smith and Fuller, 1893.

Smith, W. Dictionary of the Bible. Boston, no date, 4 volumes.

Smith, W. Bible Dictionary. Acme edition, New York: Alden, 1885.

Vigouroux. Dictionnaire de la Bible contenant tous les noms de personnes, de lieux .... mentionnes dans les s. Ecritures. Paris, 1895-.

Vollbeding, J. C. Bibl. Worterb. Berlin, 1800-1805, 3 volumes.

Watson, R. Biblical and Theol. Dictionary. London, 1831; New York, also Nashville.

Wahl, C. A. Bibl. Handworterb. Leipzig, 1828, 2 volumes.

Walbrecht, C. L. Biblisch. Worterbuch. Gottingen, 1837.

Westcott, A., and Watt, J. Concise Bible Dictionary. London: Isbister, 1893.

Wilson, T. Complete Christian Dictionary. London, 1661.

Winer, G. B. Biblisches Realworterb. 3rd edition, 1847-48, 2 volumes (still useful).

Zeller, H. Biblisches Worterb. Stuttgart, 1855-58, 2 volumes.

Other recent one-volume dictionaries are: Angus (1907), Bevis (1900); Gamble (1906), Ewing (1910), Hyamson (1907), Piercy (1908).

3. General Religious Encyclopedias:

Next in importance for Bible students to the Bible dictionaries are the general dictionaries of religious knowledge. Many of the more recent of these, such as the Hauck edition of RE, the new Sch-Herz, Jew Encyclopedia, the Catholic Encyclopedia, and in general all the larger and some of the smaller recent ones have articles of real importance for Bible study, often better than some of the specific Bible dictionaries.


Abbott, Lyman. A Dictionary of Religious Knowledge. New York: Harper, 1875.

Addis, William E. A Catholic Dictionary. New York: Cath. Pub. Soc. Co., 1884; 4th edition, revised, London: Paul, 1893.

Aschbach. Kirchenlexikon. n. p. 1846-51, 4 volumes.

Benham, William. Dictionary of Religion. London and New York: Cassell, 1887.

Buchberger. Kirchliches Handlexikon. Munchen, 1907 (short but comprehensive).

Buck, Charles. A Theological Dictionary. Enlarged by Dr. Henderson. London: Tegg, 1847; American edition, revised and enlarged by George Bush; Philadelphia: Desliver, no date

Ceccaroni, A. Dizionaro ecclesiastico illustrato. Milano.

Dwight, H. O., Tupper, H. O., Jr. and Bliss, E. M. The Encyclopedia of Missions. New York, 1904.

Eadie, J. The Ecclesiastical Encyclopedia. London: Griffin, 1847; new edition, 1875.

Eden, Robert. The Churchman’s Theological Dictionary. 2nd edition, London: Parker, 1846; new edition, 1859.

Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, The; or, Dictionary of the Bible. Rev. edition, Philadelphia: Claxton, 1870.

Farrar, John. An Ecclesiastical Dictionary. London: Mason, 1853, revised, 1871.

Gardner, James. The Christian Encyclopedia. London: Groombridge, 1854; new edition, 1858.

Glaire, J. B. Dictionnaire universel des sciences eccl~esiastiques. Paris, 1868, 2 volumes.

Herbermann, Pace, Pellen, Shahan and Wynne. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York, 1906-, 15 volumes.

Herzog. Realencyclopadie fur protestantische Theologie u. Kirche. 1853-68, 21 volumes; 3rd ed., edition Hauck, 1896-1908, 21 volumes, translation New York, 1908-(best of all the ecclesiastical dictionaries).

Herzog, J. J. A Protestant, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Encyclopedia. Vols I and II. Philadelphia: Lindsay, 1858-60.

Holtzmann and Zopffel. Lexikon fur Theologie und Kirchenwesen. 2nd edition, Brunswick, 1888 (Prot).

Jackson, Samuel Macauley. Concise Dictionary of Religious Knowledge and Gazetteer. New York: Christian Lit. Co., 1890, 1891; 3rd edition, New York: Maynard, 1893.

Jackson, S. M. The New Schaff-Herzog. New York: Funk, 1908, sq. (good and modern).

Jewish Encyclopedia. New York, 1901-6, 12 volumes (most scholarly).

Lichtenberger, F. Dict. des sci. eccl. Paris, 1877-82, 15 volumes (French Protestant).

McClintock, John and Strong, James. Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature. 10 volumes. New York: Earper, 1867-81. With supplements in 2 volumes, 1890.

Marsden, J. B. A Dictionary of Christian Churches and Sects. London: Bentley, 1857.

Migne. Encycl. theologique. Paris, 1844-75 (over 100 special lexicons).

Moroni. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica. Venice, 1840-79, 103 volumes, and Index, 6 volumes.

Among the older ones the huge encyclopedia of Migne, which is a classified series of alphabetical dictionaries, and the Moroni, with its 109 volumes, are still of great usefulness to the scholar on out-of-the-way topics, not so much for Biblical topics but at least for Biblical related matters.

Perthes. Handlexikon fur evangelische Theol. Gotha, 1890-1901, 3 volumes.

Robinson, John. Theological, Biblical and Ecclesiastical Dictionary. London: Whittaker, 1815; 4th edition, 1835.

Schaff, Philip and Jackson, Samuel Macauley. A Religious Encyclopedia. New York: Christian Lit. Co., 1882; 3rd edition, New York: Funk, 1891. Together with an Encyclopedia of Living Divines, etc.

Schaffer. Handlexikon der kath. Theologie. Ratisbon, 1881-91, 3 volumes.

Schiele. Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart. Tubingen, 1909-, 5 volumes.

Shipley, Orby. A Glossary of Ecclesiastical Forms. London: Rivingtons, 1871.

Staunton, William. An Ecclesiastical Dictionary, New York: Prot. Ep. S. S. U., 1861.

Vacant and Mangenot. Dictionnaire de theologie catholique. Paris, 1903-.

Wetzer and Welte. Kirchenlexicon. Freiburg, 1847-60; 2nd edition, 1880-91, 13 volumes, and index, 1903 (Roman Catholic scientific best).

4. Dictionaries of Comparative Religion:

The monumental dictionary in this class superseding all others is Hastings’ Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, but Forlong has served a useful purpose and some of the special dictionaries like Roscher are quite in the same class with Hastings.


Balfour, E. Cyclopaedia of India, and of East and South Asia. 3rd edition, London, 1885, 3 volumes.

Beale, Th. W. Oriental Biographical Dictionary. Calcutta, 1881; London, 1894.

Brewer, E. C. Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. London, 1905.

Encyclopedia of Islam. London: Luzac.

Forlong, J. G. R. Faiths of Man; a Cyclopaedia of Religions. London, 1906, 3 volumes.

Hastings, James. Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics. Edinburgh, Clark; New York, Scribner, 1908-.

Hazlitt, W. C. Faiths and Folklore; a Dictionary of National Beliefs. London, 1905.

Hughes, T. P. Dictionary of Islam. London, 1885.

5. Denominational Dictionaries:

The admirable Jewish and Catholic encyclopedias mentioned above, like the Methodist M’Clintock and Strong, belong rather to general than denominational encyclopedias, but the Catholic dictionaries of Addis and of Thien are denominational in the same sense as those of the Episcopal, Lutheran, etc., churches, mentioned below, among which perhaps the best executed example is the Lutheran Encyclopedia of Jacobs.


Addis, W. E. A Catholic Dictionary, 3rd edition, New York, 1884.

Benton, A. A. The Church Cyclopaedia. Philadelphia, 1884.

Burgess, G. A. Free Baptist Cyclopaedia. Chicago: Free Bapt. Cyclop. Co., 1889.

Cathcart, Wm. The Baptist Encyclopedia. Philadelphia, 1881, 2 volumes.

Catholic Encyclopedia. New York, 1907 and following. See General Religious Encyclopedias.

Hook, Walter F. A Church Dictionary. Philadelphia: Butler, 1853; 7th edition, Tibbals, 1875.

Jacobs, H. E. and Haas, J. A. W. The Lutheran Cyclopedia. New York, 1905.

Jewish Encyclopedia. See General Theological Encyclopedias.

Nevin, A. Encyclopedia of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America. Philadelphia, 1884.

Simpson, M. Cyclopaedia of Methodism. Philadelphia, 1878.

Thein, J. Ecclesiastical Dictionary. New York, 1900 (Roman Catholic).


Blunt, J. H. Dictionary of Sects, Heresies, etc. London, 1892.

Blunt, J. H. Dictionary of Doctrinal and Historical Theology. Philadelphia, 1870.

Brewer, E. C. A Dictionary of Miracles. Philadelphia, 1884.

Brodrick, M. Concise Dictionary of Egyptian Archaeol. London, 1902.

Cabrol. Dictionnaire d’archeologie chretienne et de liturgie. Paris, 1907-.

Chevalier, Ul. Repertoire des sources hist. du moyen-age. Bio-bibliog. Paris, 1905-7.

------Repertoire des sources historiques du moyen-age. Topo-bibliog. Montbeliard, 1894-1903, 2 volumes.

Fabricius, J. A. Bibliotheca latina mediae et infimae aetatis. Patavii, 1754, 6 volumes in 3.

Julian, J. edition A Dictionary of Hymnology. New York, 1892.

Kraus. Real-Encyklopadie der christlichen Alterthumer. Freiburg i. Br., 1882-86, 2 volumes.

Lee, F. G. A Glossary of Liturgical and Ecclesiastical Terms. London, 1877.

Martigny. Dictionnaire des antiquites chretiennes. 2nd edition, Paris, 1877.

Pauly. Realencyk. der klass. Altertumswissenschaft. Stuttgart, 1842-66, 6 volumes; edition Wissowa, 1894 and later.

Roscher, W. H. Lexikon der griechischen und romischen Mythologie. Leipzig, 1884-1902, 5 volumes.

Smith, Wm. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. Boston, 1849, 3 volumes.

Smith, Wm. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. Boston, 1854-57, 2 volumes.

Smith, Sir William, Wayte, William, and Marindin, G. E. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. 3rd edition, enlarged London: Murray; Boston: Little, 1890-91, 2 volumes.

Smith, W. and Cheetham, A Dictionary of Christian Antiquities. Boston, 1875-1880, 2 volumes.

Smith, W. and Wace, H. A Dictionary of Christian Biography. Boston, 1877-87, 4 volumes; abridged edition by Wace and Piercy, 1911.

Stadler and Helm. Heiligenlexikon. 1858-82, 5 volumes.

Wolcott, Mackenzie E. C. Sacred Archaeology. London: Reeve, 1868.

6. Universal Encyclopedias:

What has been said of general religious encyclopedias applies almost equally to Biblical articles in the good general encyclopedias. Among these the Encyclopedia Britannica, of which a new edition appeared in 1911, is easily first, and has maintained through its many editions a high standard. The previous edition was edited by Professor Robertson Smith, who gave a peculiarly high quality of scholarship to its Biblical articles, while at the same time rather tingeing them with extreme views. Among the British encyclopedias, Chambers’ is still kept up to a high standard. The recent American editions include the New International, the Nelson, and the Americana, the former, perhaps, contributing most on Bible matters. The annual supplement to the International gives a useful resume of the progress of Biblical archaeology during each year.


America and England

Adams, Charles Kendall. Universal Cyclopaedia and Atlas. New York: Appleton, 1905, 12 volumes.

American Cyclopaedia. New York, 1858-63, 16 volumes; new edition, 1873-76 ("Appleton’s encyclopedia").

Chambers, Ephraim. Cyclopaedia. London, 1728.

Chambers’ Encyclopedia. London, 1860-68, 10 volumes; new edition, 1901.

Colby, Frank Moore. Nelson’s Encyclopedia. (circa 1905-6), 12 volumes.

Encyclopedia Americana. New York: The Americana Co. (circa 1903-4), 16 volumes.

Encyclopedia Britannica. 1771; 9th edition, 1875-89, 29 volumes and Index, sup., 11 volumes, Index and atlas, 1902-3; 11th edition, Cambridge, England, 1910-11, 28 volumes.

Gilman, D. C. New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, 1907 (circa 1902-7), 20 volumes.

Hunter. Encyclopaedic Dictionary. London, New York, 1879-88, 7 volumes.

Johnson’s New Universal Encyc. New York, 1874-78, 4 volumes; new edition, 1893-95, 8 volumes.

Knight. English Cyclopedia. London, 1854-73, 27 volumes, and 4 supplementary volumes.

New International Year Book. New York: Dodd, 1908-.

Rees. New Encyclopedia. London, 1802-20. 45 volumes.

Schem. Deutsch-amerikanisches Konversations-Lex. New York, 1870-74.

Smedley (Coleridge?). Encyclopedia Metropolitana. 1818-45, 30 volumes (classed with some alphabetical sections).


Bayle. Dict. historique et critique. Rotterdam, 1695-97 (very widely circulated).

Berthelot, Derenbourg and others. La grande encyclopedie. See below.

Corneille, Thomas. (Dict.) Paris, 1694.

Dictionnaire de la conversation et de la lecture. 1851-58, 16 volumes.

Diderot and D’Alembert. Encyclopedic. Paris, 1751-52, 28 volumes; 5 sup. volumes, Amsterdam, 1776-77; 2 volumes Index, Paris, 1780. (Also Voltaire, Rousseau, etc. This is in the history of dictionary encyclopedias "the encyclopedia" paragraph excellence and epoch-making in the history of "free thought." Many editions; 1st edition, 30,000 copies.)

Encyclopedie des gens du monde. 1833-45, 22 volumes.

Encyclopedie du XIXe siecle. 1837-59, 75 volumes; 3rd edition, 1867-72. Continues as Annuaire encyc.

Encyclopedie moderne. 1846-51; new edition, 1856-72, 30 volumes, 12 sup. volumes, atlas, 2 volumes.

Furetiere. (Dict.) Rotterdam, 1690.

Grande encyclopedic. Paris: Lamirault, 1885-1903, 31 volumes (known as Lamirault’s).

Larousse. Diet. univ., 1865-90; 17 volumes; new edition, 1895.

------. Dict. complet illustre. 129th edition, 1903.

Moerin. Grand dict. historique. Lyons, 1674.

Nouveau Larousse illustre. Paris, 1898-1904, 8 volumes.

Panckoucke and Agasse. Encyclopedie methodique. Paris, 1782-1832, 166 volumes, text, 51 volumes, illus. (classed -alphabetic method like Migne).


Allgemeine Realencyklopadie fur das katholische Deutschland. 1846-49, 13 volumes; 4th edition, 1880-90.

Brockhaas. Konversationslexikon. 14th edition, 1901 (B. and Meyer are the standard German encyclopedias).

Ersch and Gruber. Allgemeine encyklopadie. 1813-90, 99 plus 43 plus 25 volumes (scholarly and exhaustive; many articles are complete treatises).

Herder. Konversationslexikon. Freiburg, 1853-57, 5 volumes; 3rd edition, 1901-8, 8 volumes (Roman Catholic; high grade).

Hubner. Reales-, Staats-, Zeitungs-und Konversations-Lexikon; 31st edition, Leipzig, 1824-28.

Jablonski. Lexikon .... Leipzig, 1721.

Koster and Roos. (Encyc.) Frankfort, 1778-1804, 23 volumes (stops at "Kinol").

Krunitz (and others). Oekonomisch-technolog. Encykl. Berlin, 1773-1858, 242 volumes.

Ludewig, Y. J. von. Grosses, vollstandiges, Universal-Lexikon. Leipzig, 1731-54, 68 volumes ("Zedler," which was publisher’s name; most admirable and still useful; on account of the vast number of topics it often serves when all other sources fail).

Meyer. Konversations-lexikon. Leipzig, 1840-52, 37 volumes; 6th edition, 1902, 20 volumes; 7th edition, abridged, 1907, 6 volumes (Meyer and Brockhaus are the standard German encyclopedias).

Pierer. Universallexikon. 7th edition, 1888-93, 12 volumes.

Spamer. Illustriertes Konversationslexikon. 1869-79, 8 volumes, supplementary volumes, 1879-82; 2nd edition, 1884-91.

Zedler. Universal-Lexikon. See Ludewig above.


Berri. Enciclopedia popolare economica. Milan, 1871. Coronelli. Biblioteca universale. Venice, 1701, 7 volumes (incomplete).

Lessona and Valle. Dizionario universale. Milan, 1874-83.

Nuova encic. popolare italiana. Turin, 1841-51, 14 volumes; 6th edition, 1875-89, 25 volumes, sup., 1889-99.

Piccola enciclopedia Hoepli. Milan, 1891.


De algemeene Nederlandsche Encyclopedic. Zutphen, 1865-68, 15 volumes.

Lobel. (Encyc.) Amsterdam, 1796-1810 ("first enc according to modern ideas").

Mollerup. Nordisk Konversationsleksikon. 3rd edition, Copenhagen, 1883-94.

Nieuwenhuis Woordenboek. Leyden, 1851-68.

Sijthoff. Woordenboek voor Kennis en Kunst. Leyden, 1891.

Winkler Prins. Geillustreerde Encyclopedie. Amsterdam, 1905, sq. 3rd edition

Russia and Poland

Meijer. Konversationsleksikon. 1889-94.

Brockhaus and Efron. Entciklopedicheskij Slovai. Petersburg, 1890-1902, 35 volumes.

Jushakow. Boljsaja Enciklopedija. Petersburg, 1899.

Sikoroski, Warsaw, 1890.

Orgelbrand. Encjklopedya Powszechna. Warsaw, 1859-68, 28 volumes.


Blangstrup. Store Illustererede Konversationsleksikon. Copenhagen, 1891-1901, 12 volumes.

Johnsen, Norsk Haandbog. 1879-88.

Nordisk Familjsbok; Konversationslexikon. Stockholm, 1876-99, 20 volumes.

Salmonsen. Store Illustrerede Konversationsleksikon. Kjobenhavn, 1893-1907, 18 volumes.

Spain and Portugal

Diccionario Popular Hist. Geogr. Mytholog. Biograph. Lisbon, 1876-90, 16 volumes.

Enciclopedia Universal Illustrada Europeo-Americana. Barcelona, 1907-(Catholic).

Costa. Diccionario Universal Portuguez.

Lemos. Enciclopedia Portugueza Illustrada. 254 numbers to 1903.

Mellados. Enciclopedia moderna. Madrid, 1848-51, 34 volumes; 3 volumes of charts.

Montaner y Simon. Diccionario Encic Hispano-Americano. Barcelona, 1887-99, 25 volumes.


Arabian Encyc. Discontinued when it reached the 9th vol, Beirut, 1876-87.

Enciclop. Romana. Herrmannstadt, 1896-1903, 3 volumes (Rumanian).

Kober. Slovnik Nancny. Prague, 1860-87, 12 volumes.

Otto. Ottuv Slovnik Nancny. Prague, 1888-1901, 17 volumes.

Pallas Nagy Lexikona. Budapest, 1893-97, 16 volumes; sup. 1900.

7. Dictionaries of Philosophy:

The dictionaries of philosophy often bear on Bible study almost as much as the religious dictionaries. Baldwin’s Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, which is the most comprehensive work, is also very full in its bibliographical reference, and has in volumes III and IV a colossal bibliography of philosophy continued and kept up to date in the Psychological Index. The dictionary of Eisler is on the historical principle and of very great importance in interpreting the doctrines of Biblical theology.


Baldwin, J. M. Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, New York, 1901 and following.

Eisler, R. Philosophisches Worterbuch. Berlin, 1904, 2 volumes; new edition, 3 volumes.

Frank. Dictionnaire des sciences philosophiques. 3rd edition, 1885.

8. Dictionaries of Art and Music:

The dictionaries of architecture often treat of Egyptian Babylonian, and sometimes Palestinian matters. The dictionaries of painting, engraving, music, etc., have less direct matter but are important and necessary in view of the fact that so large a part of the best work is on Biblical themes.


Architectural Publication Society. Dictionary of Architecture. London, 1852-92, 6 volumes.

Bryan, Michael. Bryan’s Dictionary of Painters and Engravers. New edition London: Bell, 1903-5, 5 volumes.

Champlin, John Denison, Jr. Cyclopedia of Painters and Painting. New York: Scribner, 1892 (circa 1885-87), 4 volumes.

Clement, Mrs. Clara Erskine Handbook of Christian Symbols.

Gwilt, Joseph. Encyclopedia of Architecture. New edition London: Longmans, 1888.

James, Ralph N. Painters and Their Works. London, 1896.

Muller, Hermann Alexander. Allgemeines Kunstlerlexicon. 3rd edition Frankfurt a. M., 1895-1901, 5 volumes.

Nagler, G. K. Neues allgemeines Kunstlerlexikon. 2. Aufl. Linz., 1904-7, volumes 1-10.

Seubert. Allgemeines Kunstlerlex. Frankfurt, 1879, 3 volumes.

Sturgis, Russell. Dictionary of Architecture and Building. New York: Macmillan, 1901, 3 volumes.

Thieme, Ulrich, and Becker, Felix. Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Kunstler. Leipzig, 1907.

Viollet-le-Duc, Eugene Emmanuel. Dictionnaire raisonne de l’architecture. Paris, 1868, 10 volumes.


Baker, Theodore. Biographical Dictionary of Musicians. New York: Schirmer, 1900.

Champlin, John Denison, Jr. Cyclopedia of Music and Musicians. New York: Scribner, 1893.

Eitner, R. Biog-bibliog. Lexikon d. Musiker. Leipzig, 1900-4, 10 volumes.

Fetis, Frantsois Joseph. Biographie universelle des musiciens. 2nd edition Paris, 1860-66, 8 volumes; 2nd sup. 1875-81.

Grove, George. Dictionary of Music. London: 1878-89, 4 volumes and supplements, 2nd edition by J. A. Fuller Maitland, 1905.

Kornmuller. Lexikon der kirchlichen Tonkunst. 2nd edition Ratisbon, 1891-95, 2 volumes.

Mendel and Reissmann. Musikalisches Konversations-lexikon. Berlin, 1870-83, 12 volumes and supplements.

Riemann, Hugo. Musik-Lexikon. 4th edition, 1894.

------. Dictionary of Music. London (1899).

Many of these bear occasionally or indirectly on Biblical topics.

9. Dictionaries of Social Science:


Birkmeyer. Encykl. der Rechtswissenschaft. Berlin, 1901.

Bliss, William Dwight Porter. New Encyclopedia of Social Reform. New York: Funk, 1908.

Bluntschli. Deutsches Staatsworterbuch. 1857-70, 2 volumes; new edition, 1869-74, 3 volumes.

Bruder. Staats-Lexikon of the Gorres Society. Freiburg i. Br., 1889-97, 5 volumes; 4th ed., edition Bachem, 1908-(Roman Catholic).

Buisson, F. Dictionnaire de pedagogie. Paris, 1882, 4 volumes.

Conrad, J. Handworterbuch der Staatswissenschaften. Jena, 1898 sq. 3rd edition to Vol XVIII (1911).

Conrad, Elster, Lexis and Loening. Handworterbuch der Staatswissenschaften. 1889-98, 6 volumes; 2 sup. volumes.

Cyclopaedia of Temperance and Prohibition. New York: Funk, 1891.

Elster. Worterbuch der Volkswirtschaft, 1808, 2 volumes; 2nd edition, 1907-.

Fay and Chailley. Nouveau dict. d’economie politique. Paris: 1891-92, 2 volumes.

Holtzendorff, F. von. Encyk. der Rechtswissenschaft. 6th edition, 1903-.

Lalor, J. J. Cyclopaedia of Political Science. New York, 1889-90, 3 volumes.

Palgrave, R. H. I. Dictionary of Political Economy. London, 1894-96, 3 volumes.

Reichesberg. Handworterbuch der schweizer. Volkswirtschaft. 1901.

Rotteck and Welcker. Staatslex. Altona, 1835-44, 15 volumes; 3rd edition, 1856-66, 14 volumes.

Schmid, K. A. Encyclopadie d. Erziehungswesens. Gotha.

Sonnenschein, W. S. Cyclopaedia of Education, arr. and edition by A. W. Fletcher, Syracuse, 1899.

Wagener, H. Staats-und Gesellschafts-Lex. Berlin, 1859-68, 26 volumes.

10. Dictionaries of Geography:

The modern gazetteers are indispensable for identifications.


Chisholm, George Goudie. Longmans’ Gazetteer of the World. London, 1902.

Hunter, W. W. Imperial Gazetteer of India. London, 1881, 9 volumes.

Lippincott’s New Gazetteer. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1906.

Ritter’s geographisch-statistisches Lexikon. 9. umgearb. Aufl. Leipzig, 1905-6. 2 volumes.

Vivien de Saint Martin, Louis. Nouveau dictionnaire de geographie universelle. Paris, 1879-95, 7 volumes.

11. Biographical Dictionaries:

The great modern biographical dictionaries, although of little use for Scripture names, are of much value to the Biblical student for the writings on Biblical subjects, and in the case of ancient biography, of much value for contemporary persons in other lands.


Aa, Anton Jacobus van der. Biographisch Woorden-boek der Nederlander. Haarlem, 1876-78, 21 volumes.

Academie royale de Belgique. Biographie nationale. Bruxelles. 1866-1907, volumes 1-19.

Allgemeine deutsche Biographie. Leipzig: 1875-1906, 52 volumes.

Allgemeine deutsche Biographie. Leipzig: Duncker, 1875-1900, 45 volumes.

Allibone, S. A. A Critical Dictionary of English Literature. Philadelphia, 1870-72, 3 volumes; 1891, 2 volumes.

Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, edition by J. G. Wilson. New York: Appleton, 1888-1900, 7 volumes.

Biografiskt Lexikon ofver namnkunnige svenske Man. Stockholm, 1874, 23 volumes.

Biographisches Jahrbuch und deutscher Nekrolog. Berlin, 1897-1906, 9 volumes.

Bricka, Carl Frederik. Dansk biografisk Lexikon. 1887-1905, 19 volumes.

Century Cyclopedia of Names, edition by B. E. Smith. New York: Century Co. (circa 1894).

Dictionary of National Biography, edition by Leslie Stephen. London: Smith; New York: Macmillan, 1885-1900, 63 volumes.

Feller, F. X. de. Biographie universelle ou dictionnaire historique. Paris, 1847-50, 8 volumes in 4.

Giles, Herbert Allen. A Chinese Biographical Dictionary. London: Quaritch, 1898.

Glasius, B. Godeleerd Nederland. 1851-56, 3 volumes.

Hoefor, Ferdinand. Nouvelle biographie universelle. Paris: Didot, 1852-66, 46 volumes.

Hofberg, Herman. Svenskt biografiskt Handlexikon. Stockholm, 1906, volumes 1-2.

Joecher, C. G. Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexikon. Leipzig, 1750-51.

Lamb’s Biographical Dictionary of the United States. Boston, 1900-1903, 7 volumes.

Michaud, Joseph Frantsois. Biographie universelle. Paris, 1842-65, 45 volumes.

National Cyclopaedia of American Biography. New York: White, 1892-1906, 13 volumes.

Schaff and Jackson. Encyclopedia of Living Divines and Christian Workers. New York, 1887.

Vapereau, L. G. Dictionnaire universel des litterateurs. Paris, 1876.

Vapereau. Dictionnaire des contemporains. Paris, 1858; 6th edition, 1893; supplements, 1895.

------. Dictionnaire des litterateurs. 1876; 2nd edition, 1884.

Wurzbach, C. von. Biographisches Lexikon Oesterreichs. 1856-91, 60 volumes.

------. Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreichs. Wien: Zamarski, 1856-91, 60 volumes.

12. Dictionaries of Language:

The lexicons of the Biblical languages and versions are treated under the head of the respective languages. The chief dictionaries in English are the great Murray and the encyclopaedic Century. The best one-vol dictionaries are perhaps the Standard and the last edition of Webster.


Brown, F., Driver, S. R., Briggs, C. A. A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament. Boston, 1906.

Thayer, J. H. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament. New York, 1887; corrected edition, 1889.

Century-Dictionary, an Encyclopedic Lexicon. New York: Century Co. (circa 1889-1901), 6 volumes.

Murray, James Augustus Henry. New English Dictionary on Historical Principles. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1888-.

Standard Dictionary of the English Language. New York: Funk.

Stormonth’s Dictionary of the English Language. New York: Scribner, 1899.

Webster, Noah. International Dictionary of the English Language. Springfield (Mass.), 1891 (circa 1864-90); new edition, 1909.

Worcester, Joseph Emerson. Dictionary of the English Language. New edition, enlarged Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1891.

The article, "Dictionary" in the new Encyclopedia Britannica (11th edition) (11th edition) covers the whole matter of dictionaries of language with extraordinary fullness.