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1870-1926. Missionary to central Africa. Born in the Scottish town of Gourock, he joined the in 1887 and two years later accompanied F.S. Arnot* to central Africa. Traveling alone, he reached Katanga in 1890. After the murder of Chief Msiri a year later, he itinerated widely, settling in 1895 at Luanza on Lake Mweru. Apart from a visit overseas (1911-15) he remained there until his death. Crawford was a strong individualist who relied for support upon unsolicited gifts and preferred to work alone. In his view, preaching and individual conversion were all-important. He itinerated frequently with little regard for health and safety, and was averse from institutionalized mission stations. Education in his village Bible schools concentrated upon the Scriptures, which he himself translated into Luba (NT in 1904; OT in 1926). His converts were encouraged to participate in teaching, preaching, and church affairs.