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Councils of Antioch

They include:

(1) in 268: Paul of Samosata, bishop of Antioch, was condemned for his Adoptianist* theology at a series of councils culminating in his deposition in 268. It is noteworthy that for the first time bishops in council passed judgment by asking the accused to sign a doctrinal formulation.

(2) In 325: a council met to elect a new bishop of Antioch but took the opportunity to severely condemn Arianism* and to announce that certain bishops, including Eusebius of Caesarea, had not signed their credal statements.

(3) About 327-330: Eustace, bishop of Antioch, was deposed by the supporters of Eusebius of Nicomedia because of his anti- Origenist theology.

4) In 341: the Dedication Council of Antioch was a meeting of ninety-seven Eastern bishops at the time of the dedication of a new cathedral and in the presence of the Eastern emperor Constantius. They put forward four creeds. In the first they denied Athanasius's accusation that they were Arians (“how should we who are bishops follow a presbyter?”). Further, though they avoided the use of homoousios, they did insist that the Son was begotten before all ages and coexisted with the Father. They clearly condemned Marcellus, bishop of Ancyra (who taught that one day Christ's lordship would be handed back to the Father), by asserting that Jesus “continues King and God for ever.” In the “Second Antiochene Creed” they stated that there were three separate hypostases united by a common will (“in agreement one”). Here again they were attacking Marcellus. If the council showed that the Western picture of the East, as being totally Arian, was untrue, it also reflected the Eastern conviction that the West was wholly Marcellan. (See Ancyra. (5) In 375: 153 Eastern bishops met under Melitius of Antioch and agreed to reconciliation with the Western Church, thus paving the way for the ecumenical Council of Constantinople.

(6) Throughout the fifth and sixth centuries there were frequent synods concerning the Nestorian* and Monophysite* controversies.

(7) Under Latin rule there were synods in 1139 and 1204. The former deposed an arrogant patriarch, Radulf, while the latter decided that the count of Tripolis had claims to the principality of Antioch.