Caroline Books

(Quattuor Libri Carolini). A four-volume Frankish commentary written about 790-92 on the place of ecclesiastical images, debating the decisions of the iconoclastic council (753-54) and the Second Council of Nicea (787), which advocated extremes, destruction and adoration, respectively. Its position is neither; rather, images are for instruction alone, while the Cross of Christ, Scripture, sacred vessels, and saints' relics are worthy of adoration only. Probably Alcuin* or a Spanish or Irish theologian at Charlemagne's court is the author. The Nicene position did gain increasing Frankish recognition after its more accurate version by Anastasius Bibliothecarius* appeared under John VIII (872-82).