The austere order of Camaldoli was founded by Romuald in 1012 near Florence. Previously abbot of several Benedictine monasteries, he had been expelled by the monks unable to meet his rigorous demands. Members of the Camaldolese observed two Lents in the year, abstained from meat, and lived on bread and water for three days in the week. Rudolph, the fourth general, slightly mitigated the original severity of the rule in its first written constitution in 1102. Gregory XVI belonged to the Camaldolese.