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ALEXANDRA (ăl-ĕg-zăn'dra, Gr. Alexandra). Wife of Aristobulus, king of the Jews (105-104 b.c.). Upon his death, she made her brother-in-law, Jannaeus Alexander, king and married him. After he died, Alexandra ruled from 78-69. John Hyrcanus II and Aristobulus II were her sons.

ALEXANDRA (̓Αλέξανδρα). A Maccabean queen, the only Jewish queen regnant other than the usurper Athaliah. Salome Alexandra was the wife of Aristobulus I (104-103 b.c.), and after his death became the wife of his brother Alexander Jannaeus (103-76 b.c.), apparently a levirate marriage. At the close of his turbulent rule, Alexander left the kingdom to his wife, advising her to make peace with the Pharisees. During her rule (76-67 b.c.), the Pharisees achieved dominant power being admitted to the Sanhedrin for the first time. Her wise and peaceful rule quieted internal dissensions in the kingdom, and her reign was generally looked upon by the people as one of prosperity. The celebrated Pharisee, Simon ben Shetach, reputedly was the brother of Alexandra (Jos. Antiq. XIII. xvi. 1, 5, 6).