Alexander II

Pope from 1061. The former Anselm, bishop of Lucca, was one of the leading popes of the Hildebrandine or Gregorian reform. He was elected without the participation of the German king and against the will of many of the Roman nobles. Hence these groups elected Cadalus of Parma (antipope Honorius II). Later they withdrew allegiance to the antipope. Under Alexander’s pontificate the reform of the Church continued through correspondence and the activity of legates. The latinization of Greek sees proceeded with the Norman conquest of S Italy and the pope encouraged moves against the Muslims in Spain and the Saxons in England. He also condemned the maltreatment of the Jews in S France and Spain. During the later part of his reign a dispute over the appointment to the bishopric of Milan increased tension with the Roman emperors. This argument continued into the reign of Gregory VII and led to the Investiture Controversy.*