(1823-1907). German Protestant scholar. He taught in Jena University from 1847 until his death, and was editor of Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Theologie from 1858. He adopted the principles of F.C. Baur and the Tübingen School,* though he was less radical, accepting, for example, the genuineness of 1 Thessalonians, Philippians, and Philemon. He was a pioneer of research into apocalyptic literature and wrote extensively on later Judaism. He was the author of an edition of extracanonical NT books, Novum Testamentum extra Canonem receptum (4 vols., 1866). In his Die jüdische Apokalyptik in ihrer geschichtlichen Entwickelung (1857), he attempted to show, inter alia, that the Similitudes of Enoch were Christian in origin-an idea generally abandoned, and refuted by E. Sjöberg and others.