1828-1891. Netherlands Protestant theologian. Born at Haarlem, he was professor of NT, ethics, and OT interpretation at Leyden from 1855. Although is generally acclaimed as chief exponent of the so-called “literary-historical school,” the earliest scientific exposition of its essential themes must be ascribed to Kuenen and K.H. Graf. Kuenen's first book, showing G.H.A. Ewald's* influence, was Historisch-Kritisch Onderzoek (1861-65; ET The Hexateuch, 1886). With Graf he came to hold that “P” (the Priestly code) was the latest element in the Pentateuch. His later views were promulgated in De Godsdient van Israel (1869-70; ET The , 1873- 75) and De profeten en de profetee onder Israel (1875).