Lecture 12: Luther on Predestination
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Four positions on predestination include the Calvinist, neo-Protestant, intuitu fidei, and Gnesio-Lutherans.
Luther on Predestination
Luther, the Pastor: How Not to Think About Election from Luther's Letters
Philosophy and Theology
Theology of Glory - Assumes the freedom of the will and binds one to one's choice
Philosopher - Expounds on the definition of man
1. Erasmus sees the continuity of man and creation and works to revelation completes nature.
2. Freedom of the will in need of grace to complete the nature of man.
3. Do your best and God will do the rest. We can't know about how salvation happens. Free will is not important.
Theology of Cross- Begins with the bondage of the will
Theologican - According to Luther - Instead deals with man as sinner
1. "We are not dealing here with the philosophical knowledge of man, which defines...
2. Luther sees the discontinuity of man and the reconciliation of man
3. Puts to death the old nature and then becomes new creation
4. Old wine in new wine skins. Understanding of the will has no recourse on the sinful nature of man.
“The Bondage of the Will” pg137 You define 'free-will' thus.
“The Bondage of the Will” pg 140
“The Bondage of the Will” pg 141
“The Bondage of the Will” pg 158, Deuteronomy 30
I. Luther on Predestination
A. The questions which arise
1. Romans 9 - Jacob I love but Esau I hated. Is God unjust? Not at all. I will have mercy on whom I have mercy, etc.
2. Pharaoh's heart hardened.
B. Paul's sensitivity to the question
C. Erasmus' urging of the same. Does this make God the author of sin?
II. The Logic of the Matter
A. Justification and Predestination
1. God alone executes salvation. What is there to do? It is already done in Christ Jesus. You are given a gift.
2. From God's perspective we are talking about predestination.
B. Divine Necessity
1. Passive voice, man subject = justification
2. Active voice, God as subject = predestination
III. The Reformation Teaching
A. Not a theory- but about actuality
B. The Bound Will
1. “The Bondage of the Will” pg 217
2. “The Bondage of the Will” pg 169-170
a. Deus Nudus -Deus Velatus
b. naked God- God that is clothed
c. act hidden - revealed
d. will not preached - is preached
e. Law, wrath, damnation - Gospel, Love, sign opposite
C. God Makes His Move
D. Preaching and the Sacraments
IV. Four Solutions
A. The Calvinist - Calvin approaches this differently. Double predestination - God chooses both for salvation and damnation. All things happen by God's decision. We preach to make the elect known.
B. The Neo-Protestant - Absolute love as basic. Unified image of God. God is transformed from a personal message to a larger view of God. God is good and God loves everyone.
C. The intuitu fidei - foreknowledge of faith. Compromise of the two natures of God. God chooses who he knows will accept and believe.
D. The Gnesio-Lutherans - Abstain from resolving the two natures of God. Gospel of God as pure and universal love and God of the world. Avoids asking the how question. If I do not know if I am elect when I hear the word, then how can it be gospel.
Preface to the book of Romans.
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