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Matthew of Aquasparta
c.1240-1302. Franciscan philosopher. Born in Aquasparta in Umbria, he studied at Todi and Paris and became Bonaventure's* most important pupil. Lector sacri palatii in Rome in 1281, he became general of the Franciscans in 1287. In 1288 he was made cardinal and in 1291 cardinal bishop of Porto and Reufina. His Commentary on the Sentences and Questions underline Bonaventure's position and put him in the Augustinian tradition. He was opposed to the Aristotelianism of Aquinas by which faith and reason were divided. He posited a parallelism between the essence in things and the ideas of these essences; hence, knowing was less intellection than recognition, and the source of knowledge was supernatural illumination. He produced many sermons and biblical commentaries.