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Council of Clermont
1095. Called at the instigation of Urban II, it was well attended by both clergy and laity. As a result of an embassy received from Emperor Alexius Comnenus at the Council of Piacenza (earlier that year), Urban called a crusade, urging the assembly to gain paradise fighting in God's cause, instead of losing their souls in fratricidal wars. There was an enthusiastic reception for Urban's proclamation. Influential support was given the council by the presence of Raymond of Toulouse, whose vassal Bishop was chosen to be papal representative during the crusade. Thirty-two canons were issued. It was decreed, inter alia, that no king or prince should grant investiture; no bishop or priest should pay homage to a layman; no flesh should be eaten between and Easter; and communicants should receive in both kinds separately whenever possible. The council also excommunicated Philip I for adultery, and confirmed the primacy of the see of Lyons.