BATTERING RAM (כַּר, H4119). An engine of warfare used in besieging a city to break down its walls. Essentially it was a stout pole with some kind of metal head. It was suspended in the middle from a framework which rested on four or six wheels. Large wooden towers protected the soldiers who operated it from the stones and arrows hurled from the walls by the defenders. The battering rams of the Egyptians had a metal point shaped like a spearhead. Both the Assyrians and the Romans made much use of the battering ram. Assyrian sculptures give many interesting representations of the various operations of ancient siege procedure.