Paul's Third Missionary Journey - Part 2
Letter to the Romans
The letter to the Romans has had a significant influence on our Christian faith and in our understanding of the Gospel. It was a pivotal book in directing reformers like Martin Luther and John Calvin. In Luther’s introduction to his commentary on Romans, he writes, “Night and day, I pondered until I saw the connection between the justice of God and the statement, the just shall live by his faith. Then I grasped that the justice of God is that righteousness by which through shear grace and mercy God justifies us through faith. Thereupon I felt my self to be reborn and to have gone through open doors into Paradise. The whole scripture took on a new meaning and whereas before the justice of God had filled me with hate, now it became to me inexpressibly sweet in greater love. The passage of Paul became to me the gate of Heaven.” The purpose of this lecture is to summarize the main points of Romans and to offer some insights into the foundational ideas that the apostle Paul presents.
I. FACTS ON ROMANS
A. Authors, 1:1, 15:25, 16:3, 16:22.
B. Readers, 1:7
C. Date of Writing, A.D. 56/57.
D. Historical Setting, Acts 20:3, Rom 16:23, 1 Cor. 1:14, Rom 16:1.
E. Purpose, 1:11-13, 11:15,16.
F. Theme, 1:16,17.
A. The Doctrine of Salvation, 1-8
B. The Unbelief of Israel, 9-11
C. The Conduct of Believers, 12-16
III. INTRODUCTION, 1:1-17
A. The Gospel: It reveals God’s righteousness and effects believers’ salvation.
1. Salutation, 1:1-7
a. Author, 1
b. Subject, 2-6
1. Promised in the OT, 2
2. Fulfilled in Christ, 3-4
3. Proclaimed by Paul, 5
2. Greeting, 7b
3. Thanksgiving, 1:8-15
a. Thanksgiving for faith, 8
b. Paul's prayer, 9-10
c. Paul's desire to visit Rome, 11-13
d. Paul's compulsion to preach, 14-15
B. The Message, 1:16-17
1. The power of the gospel, 16
a. The effect: salvation
b. The extent: worldwide
c. The condition: faith in Jesus
2. The essence of the gospel, 17
a. “The righteousness of God”
b. The righteousness which God gives?
c. The righteousness which God approves?
d. Paul quotes Habakkuk 2:4 to show that salvation by faith is nothing new.
IV. THE NEED FOR RIGHTEOUSNESS: Condemnation, 1:18-3:20
A. Paul’s Gospel, 1-8
1. Righteousness needed (condemnation), 1:18-3:20
2. Righteousness imputed (justification), 3:21-5:21
3. Righteousness imparted (sanctification), 6-8
B. Paul demonstrates the universality of sin and condemnation:
1. The Gentiles, 1:18-32
2. The Moralists, 2:1-16
3. The Jews, 2:17-3:8
4. All Mankind, 3:9-20
V. RIGHTEOUSNESS IMPUTED, JUSTIFICATION IMPARTED
A. Righteousness needed: Condemnation, 1:18-3:20
B. Righteousness imputed: Justification, 3:21-5:21
C. Justification, 3:21-5:21, imparted
D. Sanctification, 6-8
1. Positional: At regeneration
2. Experiential: Throughout life
3. Final: When we see the Lord, Rom. 6:13, Rom. 12:2, Rom. 8:3-4.
VI. THE PROBLEM OF ISRAEL,9-11
A. The heart of the epistle: Paul deals with the problem of Israel. Key questions:
1. Do the Jewish believers have a favored status?
2. Has Israel forfeited all claims to the promises of God?
3. Why are the Jews refusing the gospel?
4. Has the purpose of God been thwarted?
5. What does the future hold for the people of Israel?
B. Past Election, 9
C. Present Rejection, 10
D. Future Salvation, 11
VII. THE CONDUCT OF BELIEVERS, 12-16, DOCTRINE (12:1) & DUTY
A. "Therefore," 12:1): Paul directs us to the practical application of the doctrine set forth in chapters 1-12.
B. Christian Duties, 12-13
C. Christian Liberties, 14-15
D. Conclusion, 15-16