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1821-1893. Scottish NT scholar. Born in Edinburgh and educated at the universities of St. Andrews, Edinburgh, and Halle, he ministered in two Fife parishes before becoming in 1860 professor of biblical criticism at Aberdeen, a post he held until his death. He was moderator of the general assembly of the in 1882 and became that body's principal clerk in 1886. He was also a member of the company formed for the revision of the NT in English (1870), and the first president of the newly founded Scottish Church Society (1892). A liberal in theology, he published a number of books on biblical and theological subjects.