F. S. Bodenheimer, Animal and Man in Bible Lands (1960); F. E. Zeuner, A History of Domesticated Animals (1963), ch. 8.
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1915)
Figurative: The wild-ox is used as a symbol of the strength of Israel: "He hath as it were the strength of the wild-ox". (
"And his horns are the horns of the wild-ox:
With them he shall push the peoples all of them,
the ends of the earth" (
The Psalmist (
"Yea, Yahweh breaketh in pieces the cedars of Lebanon.
He maketh them also to skip like a calf;
Lebanon and Sirion like a young wild-ox."
Again, in praise for Yahweh’s goodness (