F. S. Bodenheimer, Animal and Man in Bible Lands (1960); F. E. Zeuner, A History of Domesticated Animals (1963), ch. 8.
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1915)
Figurative: The wild-ox is used as a symbol of the strength of Israel: "He hath as it were the strength of the wild-ox". (Nu 23:22; 24:8). In the blessing of the children of Israel by Moses it is said of Joseph:
"And his horns are the horns of the wild-ox:
With them he shall push the peoples all of them,
the ends of the earth" (De 33:17).
The Psalmist (Ps 29:5,6) in describing the power of Yahweh says:
"Yea, Yahweh breaketh in pieces the cedars of Lebanon.
He maketh them also to skip like a calf;
Lebanon and Sirion like a young wild-ox."
Again, in praise for Yahweh’s goodness (Ps 92:10): "But my horn hast thou exalted like the horn of the wildox."
In Job 39:9-12 the subduing and training of the wild-ox are cited among the things beyond man’s power and understanding.