Togarmah

TOGARMAH (tō-ga'ma, Heb. tôgharmâh). A man who appears in two genealogies as a son of Gomer (Gen.10.3; 1Chr.1.6), who is a descendant of Japheth. Ezek.27.14 states that Beth Togarmah traded “work horses, war horses and mules” for Tyrian merchandise. Later the prophet lists among the forces of Gog: “Beth Togarmah from the far north with all its troops” (Ezek.38.6). Togarmah is found in the Hittite texts from Boghaz Koi, and some Assyriologists equate Togarmah with Til-Garimmu, a province between the Euphrates River and the Antitaurus Mountains. It appears, however, that the prophet may refer to a people or nation more distant from Palestine.——CEDV


TOGARMAH tō gär’ mə (תֹּגַרְמָֽה). A son of Gomer and grandson of Japheth. He was the progenitor of the Japhetic nation that bears his name (Gen 10:3; 1 Chron 1:6). Togarmah appears twice in Ezekiel where that nation is described as carrying on extensive trade with Tyre in horses, horsemen, and mules (Ezek 27:14). It is mentioned also as one of the allies of Magog in association with Gomer, Persia, Cush, and Put (38:6).

Josephus regarded them as the Phrygians, who were noted for their horses. Assyrian inscrs., however, mention a Til-garimmu, which in Hitt. is Tegarama and prob. carries on the name of the ancient Togarmah. This city was located in E Cappadocia. Since Ezekiel places Togarmah in the N (38:6) and in association with Gomer, it is quite probable that Togarmah is to be located N of Pal. in the area SE of the Black Sea. If it is to be understood as identical with Til-garimmu, it was destroyed by the Assyrians in 695 b.c.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1915)

(~togharmah]; Thorgama, Thergama, Thurgama, Thurgaba; Vulgate (Jerome’s Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) Thorgoma):

1. Its Forms: A Suggested Identification:

The 3rd son of Gomer, and grandson of Japheth, his brothers being Ashkenaz and Riphath (Ge 10:3). The meaning of the name is doubtful. Grimm (Gesch. deutsch. Sprache, II, 325) suggests Sanskr. toka, "tribe," and arma = Armenia. Etymological and other difficulties stand in the way of French Delitzsch’s identification of Togarmah with the Assyrian Til-garimmu, "hill of Garimmu," or, possibly, "of the bone-heap," a fortress of Melitene, on the borders of Tabal (Tubal).

2. Probably Armenia or a Tract Connected Therewith:

In Eze 27:14 Togarmah is mentioned after Tubal, Javan and Mesech as supplying horses and mules to the Tyrians, and in 38:6 it is said to have supplied soldiers to the army of Gog (Gyges of Lydia). In the Assyrian inscriptions horses came from Kusu (neighborhoed of Cappadocia), Andia and Mannu, to the North of Assyria. Both Kiepert and Dillmann regard Togarmah as having been Southeastern Armenia, and this is at present the general opinion. The ancient identification of their country with Togarmah by the Armenians, though correct, is probably due to the Septuagint transposition of "g" and "r" (Thorgama for Togarmah), which has caused them to see therein the name of Thorgom, father of Haik, the founder of their race (Moses of Khor, I, 4, secs. 9-11). Eze 27:14 (Swete) alone has "g" before "r": Thaigrama. The name "Armenia" dates from the 5th century BC.

See Armenia; Table of Nations.