Synods of Aachen

Church assemblies held between 789 and 1023. Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle) had political importance in the empire of Charlemagne and his successors and thus was a natural venue. There were synods, meetings, or councils of clergy (with state officials) there in 789, 797, 799, 801-2, 809, 816- 17, 819, 825, 1000, and 1023. Their pronouncements related mainly to the ecclesiastical discipline of the parish clergy, monks, and nuns. Also discussed were the faithful performance of duty by servants of the state, and doctrinal issues. Charlemagne himself saw that Adoptianism, which had its roots in Spain and which had been condemned at Regensburg (792) and Frankfurt (794), was again condemned at Aachen in 799. In addition, he disagreed with the pope on the doctrine of Double Procession,* and had this discussed in 809. Alcuin of York was present in both 802 and 816 and contributed to discussion about implementing the Benedictine Rule. The last synod of Aachen was called to decide which diocese, Cologne or Liège, should control the monastery at Burtscheid.