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Spain

SPAIN (Gr. Spania). The westernmost peni- nsula of Europe, populated basically by an Indo- European stock allied to the Celts. The land was early noticed by the Phoenicians who established a major center of trade at Tartessus. The Carthaginians inherited the Phoenician interest in Spain, and New Carthage (Cartagena) was developed by Hannibal as his base against Italy in the Second Punic War. Spain, in consequence, became a theater of conflict in this clash of nations, and with the victory of Rome remained in Roman hands. It was not until the time of Augustus that the peninsula was finally pacified and organized. It was rapidly Romanized. Trajan, Hadrian, and [[Theodosius I]], among the emperors, were Spaniards; among men of letters the two Senecas, Lucan, Columella, Quintillian, Martial, and Prudentius came from Spain. Paul’s projected visit (Rom.15.24) was clearly in line with his evident policy to capture for the church the principal centers of the empire.——EMB