Solomon ibn Gabirol
ibn gabirol) (c.1021-c.1058. Spanish Jewish philosopher and poet. His biographical details are uncertain, but he was a threshold figure of the brilliant demi- millennium of Jewish learning when it shifted to western Europe. In ethics he was an original; virtues and vices he held to be linked in pairs to five senses, with other physiological details. He probably compiled Choice of Pearls, sixty-four chapters of aphorisms, some originally Arabic. His poems, used in the synagogue, were pure biblical Hebrew and theology, with multiple rhymings. In metaphysics his Arabic dialogue treatise, Fons Vitae, methodologically ignores Bible and Talmud and so is seriously underestimated by Judaism. A monist thinker, his views (Lat. version, 1150) nevertheless profoundly affected scholastic Christendom; the Franciscans considered him to be Muslim or Christian. S. Munk demonstrated (1846) his identity with Ibn Gabirol.