Pope from 1846. Born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, he was archbishop of Spoleto (1827) and bishop of Imola (1832) before his election as pope. He enjoyed the longest pontificate in history and consummated the spiritual renewal of the Roman Church in the nineteenth century. His central task was the identification and promotion of devoutly Catholic faith and practice in distinction from the many non-Christian and anti-Catholic philosophical or societal movements. Two world-historical events summarized his reign: the end of papal temporal power (1859-61, 1870), and the First Vatican Council (1869-70).
Pius IX experienced revolution firsthand in the Revolution of 1848-49 when he was forced by Mazzinians and Garibaldinians to flee Rome. French troops restored him (April 1850) and occupied Rome and its environs with only one interruption until 1870. Nevertheless, uprisings and Sardinian-Italian invasions terminated the temporal power over the States of the Church* (1859-61, 1870) after a thousand-year rule. He maintained a policy of nonrecognition (non possemus) of the Italian absorption of the
Out of this experience, Pius identified the principles, including liberalism, democratism, rationalism, anticlericalism, which motivated anti-Catholic assaults, and condemned them in a series of addresses, excommunications, and encyclicals, notably the Quanta Cura and the appended
Concomitantly he constructively promoted Ultramontane* renewal of his spiritual power by defining the
Bibliography: T.A. Trollope, The Story of the Life of Pius the Ninth (2 vols., 1877); R. Aubert, Le pontificat de Pie IX (1952); E.E.Y. Hales, Pio nono (1954); P. Fernessole, Pie IX (2 vols., 1961-63); K.S. Latourette, Christianity in a Revolutionary Age, vol. 1 (1969), pp. 266ff.C.T. Mc Intire