1712-1775. Moravian* missionary. Born at Frankfurt-am-Main, son of an innkeeper, he studied at Frankfurt Gymnasium (1722) and Jena University (1731), where he was influenced by Spangenberg* and Zinzendorf.* Through the latter he became a missionary of the English Society for the Propagation of the Gospel among the slaves of South Carolina, and pastor of some Moravians at Savannah, leading the Moravians in migration to Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. While in England he met and profoundly influenced the Wesleys. After a second stay in America, he spent six years in England as superintendent of the Moravian Church, being consecrated bishop in 1748. He returned to Bethlehem (1753) for eleven years. Later he was a member of the Unity Elders' Conference.