PASHHUR (păsh'hêr, Heb. pashhûr). A priest, the son of Immer (Jer.20.1), the “chief officer” in the Lord’s house. Angered by Jeremiah’s prophecies, he placed him in stocks located near the house of the Lord. When released, Jeremiah told him that the Lord had changed his name to Magor-Missabib, meaning “terror on every side.” Jeremiah also foretold Judah’s future captivity by Babylon.
2. The priestly son of Malkijah, who was one of the chief court princes during Zedekiah’s reign (Jer.21.1). When Nebuchadnezzar was preparing for one of his attacks on Jerusalem, he was sent by the king to Jeremiah. Later he joined others in seeking to have Jeremiah put to death. Probably he is the same person referred to in 1Chr.9.12; Ezra.2.38; Neh.7.41; Neh.10.3; Neh.11.12.
3. The father of Gedaliah, who aided in Jeremiah’s imprisonment (Jer.38.1).
PASHHUR păsh’ hər (פַּשְׁח֖וּר; LXX generally Πασχώρ, meaning unknown, possibly from Egyp., in which case it might mean portion of the god Horus). This name occurs several times in the OT (1 Chron, Ezra, Neh, and Jer). There is no way of knowing exactly how many individuals are involved. 1. Pashhur, son (or descendant) of Immer, priest and chief governor in the house of the Lord. When he heard about Jeremiah’s predictions of the destruction of Jerusalem, he struck the prophet and had him put in the stocks for a day. Upon being released, Jeremiah strongly rebuked him and made a prophecy that was prob. a play upon Pashhur’s name. Since the name was not Heb., it would be natural for it to be popularly interpreted as a combination of the Heb. word meaning “passover,” indicating sparing and deliverance, and the Heb. word meaning “going about”; hence, “deliverance is round about.” In this rebuke Jeremiah reversed the popular meaning of the name, saying that the Lord would no longer call him “Pashhur,” but “Magor-missabib” meaning “terror is surrounding,” and declaring that Pashhur and his friends would be carried into captivity to Babylon and would die there (Jer 20:1-6).
2. Zedekiah sent two men to inquire from Jeremiah as to the ultimate fate of the city (Jer 21:1, 2). This was prob. more than fifteen years after the incident described above. One of these men was Pashhur the son of Malchiah. There is no way of knowing whether this is the same man as Pashhur son of Immer, since Immer may have been founder of the family rather than the immediate father.
3. Pashhur the son of Malchiah is mentioned again (Jer 38:1) as one of a group, including prob. his own son Gedaliah, who complained to King Zedekiah about the unfavorable predictions of Jeremiah and, upon receiving the king’s permission, put Jeremiah into a dungeon.
4. The returning exiles included 1,247 priests described as “children of Pashhur” (Ezra 2:38; Neh 7:41). Ezra 10:22 relates that six sons or descendants of Pashhur had taken strange wives. Nehemiah 10:3 lists a priest named Pashhur as one of a group that sealed a covenant, agreeing to forbid intermarriage of their children with foreigners, and to keep the law of God. The generally parallel genealogies (1 Chron 9:12 and Neh 11:12) include a priest named Pashhur.
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1915)
pash’-hur, pash’-ur (pashchur, "splitter," "cleaver"): The name of several persons difficult to individuate:
(1) A priest, son of Immer, and "chief governor in the house of the Lord" (Jer 20:1), who persecuted Jeremiah, putting him in "the stocks" hard by the "house of Yahweh" in the "gate of Benjamin" (Jer 20:2). When released, Jeremiah pronounced Divine judgment on him and the people. Future captivity and an exile’s death are promised to Pashur whose name he changed from its masterful significance to a cowering one. "Terror on every side" (maghor miccabhibh) is to take the place of "stable strength" (Jer 20:3 ).
(2) Son of Melchiah, a prince of Judah, and one of the delegation sent by Zedekiah, the king, to consult Jeremiah (Jer 21:1). It looks like a larger and later deputation, similarly sent, to which this Pashur belongs, whose record is given in Jer 38:1-13. Accompanying them was one, Gedaliah, who was a son of (3).
(3) Another Pashur (Jer 38:1), who may be the person mentioned in 1Ch 9:12; Ne 11:12.
(4) A priest, of those who "sealed" Nehemiah’s covenant (Ne 10:1,3), who may, however, be the same as (5).
(5) The chief of a priestly family called "sons of Pashur" (Ezr 2:38; 10:22; Ne 7:41; 1 Esdras 5:25 ("Phassurus," margin "Pashhur"); 1 Esdras 9:22 ("Phaisur," margin "Pashhur")). Doubtless it is this Pashur, some of whose sons had "strange wives" (Ezr 10:22).