These concerned the date for the celebration of Easter* and occurred from the second to the eighth centuries. From their earliest history, the Eastern and Western Churches used a different basis for determination of the date. The Eastern Church followed the custom of observing it on the day on which the Jews celebrated the Passover, i.e., the fourteenth day of the month of Nisan. This meant that it might be observed on any day of the week. The Western Church always observed Easter on a Sunday. It was not until the time of Charlemagne,* however, that the present custom of observing it on the first Sunday after the full moon on or next-after the vernal equinox was firmly established throughout the West.
Polycarp traced the Eastern custom back to the Apostle John; Eusebius, the Western custom back to Xystus, bishop of Rome early in the second century. Victor I,* later in the same century, attempted unsuccessfully to impose the Western custom on the church at large. In 325 the