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Law of Guarantees

This defined the relationship between the Roman Catholic Church and the Italian kingdom after the annexation of the States of the Church. Passed by the Chamber on 13 May 1871, it determined the papal rights and prerogatives. The law declared the pope's person was inviolable, he would be accorded sovereign honors, he would receive an annual state grant, the Vatican, Lateran, and Castel Gandolfo properties would remain in his possession and be tax-exempt, the freedom of conclaves and general councils was assured, the seminaries in Rome and the Suburbicum were solely under papal control, foreign envoys to the Holy See were to enjoy the usual rights under international law, and the pope was guaranteed freedom of communication with the Catholic world. Pius IX categorically rejected the law, refused the financial offer, and withdrew into the Vatican as a voluntary “prisoner.” It was formally abrogated by the Lateran Treaty (1929).