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1493-1555. Protestant Reformer and scholar. Born at Nordhausen, he studied at Wittenberg and Erfurt, became provost of All Saints' and professor at Wittenberg, and sided with Luther in his movement. He attended the * (1529) and the Diet of Augsburg (1530) and participated in the * (1536). As pastor in Halle he contributed to the progress of the reform movement there. He opposed the Augsburg Interim* (1548). He is known for translating the Apology of the from Latin into German. His Latin translation of the Brandenburg-Nuremberg Catechism was translated into English under the direction of Archbishop Cranmer. It was also translated into Icelandic. His contributions to the Lutheran Reformation include hymnwriting, church visitation, organizational ability, the drafting of church orders, and preaching.