1819-1876. German missionary to .* Born in Württemberg and trained at Basle, he was sent to East Africa by the Church Missionary Society in 1846. With J.L. Krapf* he established the Rabia Mpia mission among the Nyika. He undertook several exploratory journeys, was the first European to see Kilimanjaro (1848), and prepared a map which helped inspire the Burton-Speke expedition (1857). His linguistic studies in three vernaculars laid sound foundations for future workers. After 1855 he was alone at Rabai except for a brief period. In 1875 he returned to Württemberg, blind and broken in health. His death coincided with the effective entry of the CMS into East Africa.