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1812-1889. Cardinal and patristic scholar. After studying at the seminary at Autun, he became a Benedictine and in 1843 prior of St. Germain in Paris. He cooperated here for a brief period with J.P. Migne,* the patrologist. Then he traveled widely in search of Latin and Greek MSS and to raise money for the abbey of Solesmes. The pope sent him on an ecumenical mission to Rome after which he became Pius IX's adviser on oriental matters. In 1869 he was appointed librarian at the Vatican, where he cataloged precious Greek codices. In 1879 he was made bishop of Frascati and in 1880 cardinal legate of Monte Cassino. He published important material on the patristic period as well as in canonical law.