Introduction to Hinduism, by Dr. Timothy Tennent
1. Historical Windows on Hinduism. Introduction to fundamental ideas and literature that are basic to the Hindu religion. The first lecture given for this class is not available at this time. This lecture begins on the class outline at II, C.
2. Key Themes in the Upanishadic Vision (part 1). Brahman is the ultimate reality of the universe. Our atman is encrusted with karma and stuck on the wheel of Samsara. A Hindu's goal, in the process of being reincarnated through thousands of lifetimes, is to rid themselves of karma so they can achieve moksa, oneness with Brahman.
3. Key Themes in the Upanishadic Vision (part 2). Maya is the ability of the gods to create the world and give it the appearance they choose, thereby concealing the true nature of Brahman. Karma is the principle that what you sow, you alone reap.
4. Key Themes in the Upanishadic Vision (part 3). A Hindu must work off their karma to be released from the wheel of Samsara and achieve moksa when their atman becomes one with Brahman. Yoga was developed as a way to achieve the goals of the Samkhya philosophy. Hindus see God as a material cause of the universe, not an efficient cause.
5. Mahavakyas of the Upanishads (part 1). The Mahavakyas are “great sayings” that give you insights into core teachings of Hinduism. The Brehed Aranyaka Upanishad shows that Hindus believe that diversity can come through oneness and not be an “other.”
6. Mahavakyas of the Upanishads (part 2). Sankara says that Brahman is unknowable and we can't perceive any of his qualities. The rope-snake metaphor is often used by Hindus to discuss the difference between perception and reality.
Challenges to the Upanishadic Vision
7. Buddhist Dissent. The key insight of the Upanishads is the identification of atman with Brahman. Buddhists deny both atman and Brahman.
8. Bhakti Movement. The Bhakti marga is branch of Hinduism that emphasizes a spiritual journey undertaken by a devotee that will culminate in a state of union with God or mutual indwelling of the deity and the bhakta.
9. Identifying Gods/Goddesses in India - Vishnu. The Hindu gods have identifying characteristics that make them easy to recognize when you see them in temples or other settings. The Trimrti are the three major gods of India which are Brahma, Shiva and Vishnu. Brahma is not often visually represented, so Vishnu and Shiva are seen the most. Brahma the creator, Vishnu the preserver, Shiva the destroyer. Vishnu has 10 incarnations or avatars. These are partial incarnations and don’t represent the fullness of Vishnu. (The pictures Dr. Tennent used in class are not available to us)
10. Identifying Gods/Goddesses in India - Siva. The Siva icon always has the presence of the Trishal, which is a sacred weapon of destruction. There is also the nag (cobra), damaru (drum), third eye, Ganges river flowing out of his head. The dancing Siva has a damaru in one hand and a flame of fire in the other that represents creation and destruction of the world. He also has dreadlocks and the trunk of an elephant. The third eye of siva is what Hindu women have on their forehead. The Siva Lingum is the most dominant icon in north India.
Movements in Hinduism
11. The Bhakti Movement (part 2). The Brahminical branch teaches that works and devotion lead to true knowledge (Upanishadic vision, tat twam asi). Bhaktis say that knowledge and works should lead to devotion.
12. Epic and Classical Period. The Ramayana is an epic account of India. It is the story or epic of Rama and Sita, and is the origin of the tradition of Suti. Mahabharata is the epic of India. It’s the longest collection of poems in the world. The Bhagavad-Gita is the most important part of the Mahabharata. It talks about both the dharma of caste and the dharma of denial and renunciation.
13. Modern Day Guruism in India and the West. Gurus integrate different parts of the marga system. Paramahamsa Ramakrishna declared the unity of all religions. He claimed to have visions of Hindu gods and Jesus Christ and Mohammed and that all religions lead to the same ultimate reality, sat chit ananda. Swami Vivekananda was the most well-known follower of Ramadrishna and brought his message to the western world. He accepts tat twam asi, the great insight of the Upanishads, but thinks that everyone, not just Brahmans can perceive that unity. (The last point of the lecture was cut short due to a technical limitation.)
14. Major Holidays in Popular Hinduism. These are nine of the major holidays celebrated in India. Sankara has been called India’s greatest philosopher. Sankara emphasized universals and Ramanuja emphasized the particulars, similar to Plato and Aristotle in Western thought. Sankara has greater status as a philosopher, but Ramanuja has had a great influence on how the masses practice Hinduism.
15. The Philosophical Theology of Sankara and Ramanuja. According to Sankara, the distinction between enjoyers and objects of enjoyment doesn’t exist. Brahman is everything. The world is illusion and only the atman is Brahman. The nirguna saguna (Brahman) distinction is critical to the Advedic position. Ramanuja accepts the basic idea of monism but modifies it to reconcile plurality by embracing differentiation and particularity. He argues that Brahman is a personality which comprehends within himself all plurality (one essence with internal differentiation). Sankara says Brahman is exclusive of particularities and Ramanuja says Brahman is inclusive. Sanakara views Brahman as subject only but Ramanuja views him as object. For Sankara, there is only subject, but for Ramanuja there is subject and object. Ramanuja insisted that Brahman can have contact with the world and even become embodied without compromising any of his defining attributes. Sankara has two levels of Brahman, nirguna, saguna. Ramanuja has two modes of Brahman, hidden, revealed.
Christian Response to Hinduism
16. Christian Response Case Studies (part 1). Brahmabandhav Upadhyay was an upper jati Brahman teacher who converted to Catholicism. He attempts to explain Christianity by using Advadic motifs. Brahmabandhav is an example of how a Brahman can address the Brahminical community using a Brahminical line of reasoning.
17. Christian Response Case Studies (part 2). A. J. Appasamy became the bishop of south India. He developed a Christian interpretation of the Pramanas. He shows how the relational themes in John’s gospel are consistent with the Bhakti tradition. He doesn’t believe Bhakti is sufficient, but uses it to prepare people for the gospel.