Fredrik Gabriel Hedberg

1811-1893. Finnish pastor; founder of the “Evangelical movement.” As a schoolboy he experienced his first spiritual revival through influence from Herrnhut groups. He studied the Bible together with pietistic revival literature, which books through their strictness extinguished his spiritual life. In 1834 he was ordained as pastor of the Church of Finland, at which time he was completely a theologian of the Enlightenment and mainly tried to improve people's ability to read. He soon found this foundation inadequate, for it had nothing to offer souls in need. He came into contact with Pietism* and this influenced him decisively, but in 1844 he published The Doctrine of Faith Unto Salvation, indicating a complete break with the Pietists. He then founded and became leader of the Evangelical movement, based on the writings of Luther. In the center are the grace and forgiveness of God, the redemption of Christ, and the appropriation of it through the means of grace. Hedberg speaks less about sanctification and prayer, but with more boldness about the universal grace of God, which grace is given to man already in (infant) baptism.