Frederick Denison Maurice
1805-1872. Christian Socialist. He was son of a Unitarian minister; the religious conflicts of the home partly explain his later preoccupation with a search for unity. In 1823 he entered Trinity College, Cambridge, but being a Nonconformist was unable to take a degree. He moved to London and wrote in criticism of Benthamite materialism and developed an interest in social reform. Influenced by Coleridge's writings, he accepted Anglicanism and, deciding to be ordained, went to Exeter College, Oxford, where he was attracted to Tractarianism.* In 1834 he was ordained to a country curacy in Worcestershire and in 1836 became chaplain at Guy's Hospital, London, by which time he had broken with the Tractarians over baptism, which he saw as assuring every man that he is a child of God.
In 1838 he published his most enduring work, The Kingdom of Christ, in which most of his fundamental beliefs are expressed-the basic tenets of incarnational theology and, in particular, his belief in Christ as the head of every man, and universal fellowship and unity being possible in Christ alone. While at Guy's, he was doing practical work in the cause of education, and later in 1848 he was associated in the founding of Queen's College, London, the first higher educational establishment for women. In 1840 he was appointed professor of English literature and history at King's College, London, and in his Warburton Lectures (1846) he replied to J.H. Newman's* theory of development. In 1846 Maurice was appointed chaplain at Lincoln's Inn and also professor of theology at King's.
The political events of 1848 restirred his concern in the application of Christian principles to social reform, and with J.M.F. Ludlow* and
F. Maurice, Life and Letters of F.D. Maurice (2 vols., 1884); F. Higham,