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Formula of Concord

1577. A Lutheran confession which settled the doctrinal controversies within German Lutheranism after Luther's death, primarily those between Flacians and Philippists. The controversies dealt mainly with: Adiaphorism, which arose because of the subscription on the part of some Lutherans to the Leipzig Interim (1548); Majorism, the place of good works in salvation; synergism, free will, and conversion; original sin; Antinomianism, the distinction between Law and Gospel; the Lord's Supper; Christ's descent into hell; and predestination. Martin Chemnitz* and James Andreae* were the chief architects of the Formula, which grew out of six sermons by the latter, the Swabian-Saxon Concordia, the Torgau Book, and the Bergen Book. It is made up of an Epitome and a Thorough Declaration, each with twelve articles. The Epitome states briefly the status controversiae, the affirmative theses, and the antitheses; the second part has the title: “Thorough, Pure, Correct, and Final [Solid, Plain, and Clear] Repetition and Declaration of Some Articles of the Augsburg Confession concerning which, for Some Time, there has been Controversy among Some Theologians who Subscribe Thereto, Decided and Settled according to the Analogy of God's Word and the Summary Contents of Our Christian Doctrine.”