FALSE APOSTLES (ψευδαπόστολοι). Reference to false apostles occurs only in 2 Corinthians 11:13. The reasons for Paul’s harsh judgment of these men are their destructive work in the Corinthian Church, and their criticisms of Paul. Paul says they led the Corinthian Christians “astray from a sincere and pure devotion to Christ” (2 Cor 11:3), and they preached “another Jesus” (v. 4). They said Paul was an inferior (v. 5) and unskilled apostle (v. 6), who received “outside” support from Macedonia (vv. 7-9). They boasted of their special religious prerogatives as Jews (v. 22). These items show they lacked the apostolic virtues and message.