Ernst Moritz Arndt

1769-1860. German hymnwriter and historian. Having studied theology at Greifswald and Jena, he lectured in history at Greifswald, but fled to Sweden because of his anti-Napoleonic Vom Geist der Zeit (1806-1818). He wrote patriotic pamphlets and poems, including Des Deutschen Vaterland, before becoming in 1818 professor of history at the University of Bonn. He was suspended two years later because of alleged republicanism, but was reinstated in 1840. After doubts caused by contemporary philosophy, he adopted from 1817 (under Schleiermacher's influence) a more Christian position. His attack, Von dem Wort und dem Kirchenliede (1819), on the rationalistic bowdlerization of evangelical hymns helped to restore original versions. Of his own eighty-three hymns, notably Ich weiss, woran ich glaube, fourteen have been translated into English; no translation is in common use now. When hopes of a Protestant- Catholic union had foundered he became a staunch Protestant (see his über den gegenwärtigen Stand des Protestantismus, 1844).