EPISTLE (ē-pis'l, Gr. epistolē, letter, epistle). Written correspondence, whether personal or official, has been common to all ages. The OT abounds with evidence of widespread written letters, among the best known being David’s letter to Joab concerning Uriah (
The term is, however, almost a technical one, referring particularly to the twenty-one epistles of the NT. The NT epistles were written by five (possibly six) writers: James, John, Jude, Paul, Peter, and the author of Hebrews. Paul wrote thirteen (or fourteen, if Hebrews is by him); John, three; Peter, two; James, one; and Jude, one. According to the custom of the time, they usually began with the name or title of the writer and that of the addressee or addressees; then followed words of greeting, the message of the epistle; and at the end the author usually gave his name. It was Paul’s usual practice to employ a secretary to write from dictation. The epistles were written to individual churches or groups of churches (almost always given by name) or to individuals. Seven are called, because they were written to the church at large.
The epistles are not disguised doctrinal treatises. They were written in the way of ordinary correspondence and dealt with situations, whether doctrinal or practical, needing immediate attention. They were written in reply to letters or as the result of other information otherwise obtained. It is very apparent that the writers realized that what they wrote was authoritative and came from God. They all dealt with some aspect of the redemptive message and experience. Although written to deal with specific local situations, they set forth fundamental principles applicable to the individual and collective life of all believers. They were received from the beginning with the OT Scriptures (
The influence of the NT epistles on the literature of Christianity is seen in the writings of the next century, which were mostly epistolary in form. Indeed, heretics wrote epistles in the name of the apostles.
It is not to be supposed that all of the epistles of the apostles have survived. Paul in
EPISTLE ĭ pĭs’ əl (סֵ֫פֶר, H6219, ἐπιστολή, G2186, letter or dispatch...written communication, communication in writing or printing addressed to a person or number of persons). While tr. “epistle” fifteen times and “letter” only nine times in the KJV NT, epistolé is tr. “letter” invariably in the RSV.
Composition and delivery.
Twenty-one of the twenty-seven NT books are letters, plus two brief letters in Acts (15:23-29; 23:26-30), and seven in Revelation (
Four persons were usually involved in a NT letter; the writer, the secretary (amanuensis), the carrier, and the readers. It is considered, traditionally, that Paul was the author of thirteen of the NT letters; James, one; Peter, two; John, three; Jude, one; and one (Hebrews), anonymous. Paul’s letters may be classified as follows: (1) eschatological (1 and 2 Thess), (2) soteriological (Gal, Rom, 1 and 2 Cor), (3) christological (Col, Eph, Phil), (4) ecclesiological (1 and 2 Tim, Titus), and personal (Philem). James is ethical; Jude is polemical; 1 and 2 Peter are pastoral; 1, 2, 3 John are pastoral; and Hebrews is largely polemical.
Structure and value.
F. W. Farrar, The Message of the Books (n.d.), 143-157; W. M. Ramsay, Letters to the(1905), 23ff.; A. Deissmann, Light From the Ancient East (1911), 217-238; J. Moffatt, An Introduction to the Literature of the (1923), 44-58; D. M. Pratt, “Epistle,” ISBE (1939), II, 966, 967; E. W. K. Mould, Essentials of Bible History (1951), 582-588; M. S. and J. L. Miller, “Epistles,” Harper’s Bible Dictionary (1955), 169, 170; C. K. Barrett, The New Testament Background (1961), 27-29; O. J. F. Seitz, “Letter,” IDB (1962), K-Q, 113-115; S. Barabas, “Epistle,” The Zondervan Pictorial Bible Dictionary (1963), 257; E. F. Harrison, Introduction to the New Testament (1964), 238-244; J. Stein, ed., The Random House Dictionary of the English Language (1966).
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1915)
(epistole, "a letter," "epistle"; from epistello, "to send to"):
1.Epistles 2. Distinctive Characteristics 3. Letter-Writing in Antiquity 4. Letters in the 5. Letters in the Apocrypha 6. Epistolary Writings in the New Testament 7. Epistles as Distinguished from Letters 8. Patristic Epistles 9.
1. New Testament Epistles:
A written communication; a term inclusive of all forms of written correspondence, personal and official, in vogue from an early antiquity. As applied to the twenty-one letters, which constitute well-nigh one-half of the New Testament, the word "epistle" has come to have chiefly a technical and exclusive meaning. It refers, in common usage, to the communications addressed by five (possibly six) New Testament writers to individual or collective churches, or to single persons or groups of Christian disciples. Thirteen of these letters were written by Paul; three by John; two by Peter; one each by James and Jude; one--the epistle to the Hebrews--by an unknown writer.
2. Distinctive Characteristics:
As a whole the Epistles are classified as Pauline, and Catholic, i.e. general; the Pauline being divided into two classes: those written to churches and to individuals, the latter being known as Pastoral (1 and 2 Timothy, and Titus; some also including Philemon; see Lange on Romans, American edition, 16). The fact that the New Testament is so largely composed of letters distinguishes it, most uniquely, from all the sacred writings of the world. The Scriptures of other oriental religions--the Vedas, the Zend Avesta, the Tripitaka, the Koran, the writings of Confucius--lack the direct and personal address altogether. The Epistles of the New Testament are specifically the product of a new spiritual life and era. They deal, not with truth in the abstract, but in the concrete. They have to do with the soul’s inner experiences and processes. They are the burning and heart-throbbing messages of the apostles and their confreres to the fellow-Christians of their own day. The chosen disciples who witnessed the events following the resurrection of Jesus and received the power (
The Epistles consequently have a charm, a directness, a vitality and power unknown to the other sacred writings of the world. Nowhere are they equaled or surpassed except in the personal instructions that fell from the lips of Jesus. Devoted exclusively to experimental and practical religion they have, with the teachings of Christ, become the textbook of the spiritual life for the Christian church in all subsequent time. For this reason "they are of more real value to the church than all the systems of theology, from Origen to Schleiermacher" (Schaff on St. Paul’s Epistles, History of the Christian Church, 741). No writings in history so unfold the nature and processes of the redemptive experience. In Paul and John, especially, the pastoral instinct is ever supreme. Their letters are too human, too personal, too vital to be formal treatises or arguments. They throb with passion for truth and love for souls. Their directness and affectionate intensity convert their authors into prophets of truth, preachers of grace, lovers of men and missionaries of the cross. Hence, their value as spiritual biographies of the writers is immeasurable. As letters are the most spontaneous and the freest form of writing, the New Testament Epistles are the very life-blood of Christianity. They present theology, doctrine, truth, appeal, in terms of life, and pulsate with a vitality that will be fresh and re-creative till the end of time. (For detailed study of their chronology, contents and distinguishing characteristics, see articles on the separate epistles.)
3. Letter-Writing in Antiquity:
While the New Testament Epistles, in style and quality, are distinct from and superior to all other literature of this class, they nevertheless belong to a form of personal and written address common to all ages. The earliest known writings were epistolary, unless we except some of the chronologies and inscriptions of the ancient Babylonian and Assyrian kings. Some of these royal inscriptions carry the art of writing back to 3800 BC, possibly to a period still earlier (see Goodspeed, Kent’s Historical Series, 42-43, secs. 40-41), and excavations have brought to light "an immense mass of letters from officials to the court--correspondence between royal personages or between minor officials," as early as the reign of Khammurabi of Babylon, about 2275 BC (ibid., 33). The civilized world was astonished at the extent of this international correspondence as revealed in the Tell el-Amarna Letters (1480 BC), discovered in Egypt in 1887, among the ruins of the palace of Amenophis IV. This mass of political correspondence is thus approximately synchronous with the Hebrew exodus and the invasion of Canaan under Joshua.
4. Letters in the Old Testament:
As many writers have well indicated, the Babylonian captivity must have been a great stimulus to letter-writing on the part of the separated Hebrews, and between the far East and Palestine. Evidences of this appear in the histories of Ezra and Nehemiah, e.g. the correspondence, back and forth, between the enemies of the Jews at Jerusalem and Artaxerxes, king of Persia, written in the Syrian language (
5. Letters in the Apocrypha:
The Old Testament Apocrypha contains choice specimens of personal and official letters, approximating in literary form the epistles of the New Testament. In each case they begin, like the latter, in true epistolary form with a salutation: "greeting" or "sendeth greeting" (
6. Epistolary Writings in the New Testament:
The most felicitous and perfect example official correspondence in the New Testament is
7. Epistles as Distinguished from Letters:
This survey of epistolary writing in the far East, and especially in the Old Testament and New Testament periods, is not intended to obscure the distinction between the letter and the epistle. A clear line of demarcation separates them, owing not merely to differences in form and substance, but to the exalted spiritual mission and character of the apostolic letters. The characterization of a letter as more distinctly personal, confidential and spontaneous, and the epistle as more general in aim and more suited to or intended for publication, accounts only in part for the classification. Even when addressed to churches Paul’s epistles were as spontaneous and intimately and affectionately personal as the ordinary correspondence. While intended for general circulation it is doubtful if any of the epistolary writers of the New Testament ever anticipated such extensive and permanent use of their letters as is made possible in the modern world of printing. The epistles of the New Testament are lifted into a distinct category by their spiritual eminence and power, and have given the word epistle a meaning and quality that will forever distinguish it from letter. In this distinction appears that Divine element usually defined as inspiration: a vitality and spiritual endowment which keeps the writings of the apostles permanently "living and powerful," where those of their successors pass into disuse and obscurity.
8. Patristic Epistles:
Such was the influence of the New Testament Epistles on the literature of early Christianity that the patristic and pseudepigraphic writings of the next century assumed chiefly the epistolary form. In letters to churches and individuals the apostolic Fathers, as far as possible, reproduced their spirit, quality and style.
9. Apocryphal Epistles:
Pseudo-epistles extensively appeared after the patristic era, many of them written and circulated in the name of the apostles and apostolic Fathers. See Apocryphal Epistles. This early tendency to hide ambitious or possibly heretical writings under apostolic authority and Scriptural guise may have accounted for the anathema pronounced by John against all who should attempt to add to or detract from the inspired revelation (
Dwight M. Pratt