c.50-c.130. Stoic philosopher. Born a slave, probably at Hierapolis in Phrygia, he was permitted to sit under Rufus, a teacher of Stoicism, and later was given his freedom. As a young teacher in Rome, Epictetus met with some success until expelled by Domitian about a.d. 90. He wrote nothing, but some of his lectures were taken down by a disciple and are entitled Discourses of Epictetus and Encheiridion (the latter is shorter and more popular). While his conception of God is more akin to that posited in Christian theology than in Stoic pantheism, his discourses reveal only one reference to the Christians. Thus it is difficult to argue that the Christian viewpoint was a significant factor in the formulation of his philosophy, although there is a close similarity in statements relating to morality.