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ELIAB (ē-lī'ăb, Heb. ’ĕlî’āv)

1. A Zebulonite, son of Helon, attendant of Moses in taking the census in the wilderness, leader of a host of 57,400 (Num 1:9; 2:7; 10:16) whose offering to the Lord at the Tabernacle on the third day totaled a silver plate and basin full of fine flour, a golden dish of incense, a bull, lamb, goat, two oxen, six rams, five male goats, and five male lambs for sin and peace offerings (Num 7:24-29).

2. A Reubenite, son of Pallu and father of Nemuel, Dothan and Abiram, the last two of whom were among the leaders of those who contended with Moses and Aaron in the wilderness (Num 16:1, 12; 26:8, 9; Deut 11:6).

3. A Kohath Levite, son of Nahath and ancestor of Samuel the prophet (1 Chron 6:27). Variant names are Eliel (1 Chron 6:34 [MT:19]) and Elihu (1 Sam 1:1).

4. Eldest son of Jesse and brother of David whose physical appearance made him attractive to Samuel as a candidate for king but who at the Lord’s prompting was passed in favor of David (1 Sam 16:6; 1 Chron 2:13). Eliab served Saul in the Valley of Elah when Goliath challenged the army and was angry at David for coming to the battle (1 Sam 17:13, 28). He also was the father of Abihail, wife of Rehoboam (2 Chron 11:18). It is often conjectured, following Jerome (Quaesitones Hebraicae, ad loc.) that Elihu of 1 Chronicles 27:18 is a variant for Eliab.

5. A Gadite warrior, third in rank of the Gadite officers, who served David at Ziklag (1 Chron 12:9 [LXX v. 11]).

6. A Levite minister, harpist, and singer at the sanctuary, as arranged by David, appointed to play alamot (1 Chron 15:18, 20; 16:5).

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1915)

(’eli’abh, "God is father"):

(1) Prince of the tribe of Zebulun in the Exodus (Nu 1:9; 2:7; 7:24,29; 10:16).

(2) A Reubenite, father of Dathan and Abiram (Nu 16:11,12; 26:8 f; De 11:6).

(3) Eldest son of Jesse and brother of David (1Sa 16:6), once called Elihu (1Ch 27:18). He was of commanding appearance (1Sa 16:6) and when serving with Saul’s army at the time when it was confronting the Philistines and Goliath, was inclined to lord it over his brother David (1Sa 17:28 f). His daughter Abihail became a Wife of Rehoboam (2Ch 11:18).

(4) An Ephraimite, an ancestor of Samuel (1Ch 6:27); called Eliel in 1Ch 6:34, and Elihu in 1Sa 1:1.

(5) A Gadire warrior with David (1Ch 12:9), one of 11 mighty men (1Ch 12:8,14).

(6) A Levite musician (1Ch 15:18,20; 16:5).

(7) An ancestor of Judith ( Judith 8:1; compare Judith 9:2).