This amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1919, prohibited “the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors.” Late nineteenth and early twentieth-century Protestantism, whether theologically evangelical or liberal, was devoted to the moral reform of society. The increase in drunkenness in growing urban industrial centers aroused reform-minded people. The temperance movement gradually grew in strength and shifted its emphasis from moderation to total abstinence enforced by law. There was widespread popular resentment against the [[Eighteenth Amendment]], and it was difficult to enforce, especially in urban areas. Many people disregarded the law, and bootlegging became a lucrative business, bringing with it the establishment of violent, organized crime syndicates. The passage in 1933 of the Twenty- First Amendment repealed the Eighteenth Amendment, but left local or state authorities to deal with the right to make their own alcoholic beverages.