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EDER (ē'dêr, Heb. ‘edher, floods)

A city in south Judah near Edom (Josh.15.21), possibly the same as Adar. Site unknown.A son of Mushi, the son of Merari (1Chr.23.23; 1Chr.24.30).A son of Beriah, grandson of Shaharaim, a Benjamite (1Chr.8.15); KJV, Ader.

EDER, EDAR e’ dər (עֵֽדֶר, flock as place name; prob. Aram. form of עֵזֶר, helper as personal name). 1. A watch tower (migdal) between Bethlehem and Hebron, where Jacob pitched his tent after Rachel’s death, and where Reuben cohabited with Bilhah (Gen 35:21, 22). The JB renders it Migdal-eder. Because of its proximity to Bethlehem where David was born Micah (4:8) refers to it (“O tower of the flock,” KJV, RSV, etc.) and to Ophel (“the stronghold,” KJV), where David’s palace stood in Jerusalem, as symbols of the royal house of David.

2. A town in the Negeb district of Judah (Josh 15:21), identified by some with el-’Adar, c. five m. S of Gaza on the right bank of the Wadi Ghazzeh. The LXX B, however, has Ara, suggesting that Arad (q.v.) is prob. the correct reading (Y. Aharoni, The Land of the Bible [1967], p. 105).

3. A Benjamite (1 Chron 8:15).

4. A Levite, descendant of Mushi, son of Merari (1 Chron 23:23; 24:30).

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1915)

(’edher, "flock"):

(1) One of the "uttermost cities" of Judah in the Negeb ("South") near the border of Edom (Jos 15:21), possibly Kh. el `Adar, 5 miles South of Gaza, but probably this is too far west.

(2) Eder (the King James Version Edar) or better Migdal Eder, mighdal `edher, "the tower of the flock"; Gader. After Rachel died and was buried "in the way to Ephrath (the same is Bethlehem) .... Israel journeyed, and spread his tent beyond the tower of Eder" (Ge 35:19,21). In Ge 35:27 he is described as proceeding to Hebron. This "tower of the flock," which may have been only a tower and no town, must therefore be looked for between Bethlehem and Hebron. Jerome says that it was one Roman mile from Bethlehem. In the Septuagint, however, 35:16 and 21 are transposed, which suggests that there may have been a tradition that Migdal Eder was between Bethel and Bethlehem. There must have been many such towers for guarding flocks against robbers. Compare "tower of the watchman" (2Ki 18:8, etc.). The phrase "Migdal Eder" occurs in Mic 4:8 where Jerusalem is compared to such a tower.

(`edher, "flock").

(1) A Merarite Levite in the days of David (1Ch 23:23; 24:30); son of Mushi.

(2) A Benjamite (1Ch 8:15, the King James Version "Ader").