1839-1909. American composer. It is customary to depreciate him today and all he stood for, but he did great service to American church music in the era in which he lived. He was the first influential American-born church musician to be trained in Europe. He held important posts in Hartford, Chicago, Boston, and New York. He was a voluminous composer of cantatas, anthems, and also secular music. Although the musical substance of his works is undistinguished and depends much on facile clichés, he provided his generation with material that was readily attractive and encouraged choral activity. He was also a distinguished organist and by his recitals did much to advance the popularity of that instrument.