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DEPUTY (Heb. nitstāv, Gr. anthypatos). One appointed to rule under a higher authority, as a regent in place of a king (1Kgs.22.47) or a Roman consul or proconsul (Acts.13.7, Acts.18.12, Acts.19.38). Roman proconsuls were appointed by the Roman senate to govern senatorial provinces, usually for one year. They exercised judicial as well as military power in their province. During their term of office their power was absolute, but when it expired they were accountable for what they had done.

DEPUTY. 1. נִצָּב, H5896. A ruler appointed to function in lieu of a king (1 Kings 22:47).

2. פֶּחָה, H7068, RSV “governor” (Esth 8:9; 9:3). Only in Esther does the RSV tr. it “deputy,” where it refers to one type of Pers. governor.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1915)