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Concordat of Bologna
1516. This pact between Francis I of France and Leo X was the result of a sweeping military victory won by the French king at Marignano over the combined military forces of the Italian states and the papacy. Through it Francis made himself master of the French Church. The concordat allowed Francis to nominate candidates for bishoprics, abbeys, and priories in France, with only a very few exceptions. But the right of canonical investiture remained with the papacy. The concordat thus gave a degree of independence to the French Church and reflected the growing spirit of nationalism in France.