Bethlehemites

Obscure hospital and military orders, sometimes under Austin rule. Matthew of Paris attests to such in England in 1257, at Cambridge. There was also the hospital of St. Mary of Bethlehem in London for mental patients (established in 1247), which in 1547 became a royal establishment for the care of lunatics: hence the word “bedlam.” Pius II founded a military order, dedicated to the BVM of Bethlehem, for protecting the Aegean after 1453. There were other institutions in Scotland, Italy, and France. Brothers and sisters wore a habit with a red star, much confused with the Bohemian hospital order established in Prague in the thirteenth century.